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  • Dynamic MR angiography of upper extremity vascular disease: pictorial review
  • Stepansky F; Hecht EM; Rivera R; Hirsh LE; Taouli B; Kaur M; Lee VS
  • Radiographics 2008[Jan]; 28 (1): e28
  • Unlike peripheral lower extremity vascular disease, upper extremity vascular disease is relatively uncommon. While atherosclerosis and embolic disease are the most common causes of upper extremity ischemia, a wide variety of systemic diseases and anatomic abnormalities can affect the upper extremity. Upper extremity ischemia poses a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for both clinicians and radiologists. Although history and physical examination remain the mainstays of diagnosis, imaging can be vital in confirming suspected disease and guiding treatment planning. Digital subtraction angiography is often the preferred method for detection of upper extremity vascular disease, particularly for characterization of complex arteriovenous anatomy such as in vascular malformations and for evaluation of dialysis fistulas and grafts. However, this modality is invasive, requires iodinated contrast agents and radiation, and may fail to demonstrate significant extraluminal disease. More recently, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography techniques have made important advances, permitting higher temporal and spatial resolution that is preferable for diagnosing upper extremity vascular disorders. In this review, the authors present an overview of upper extremity MR angiography techniques and protocols, revisit the often variable vascular anatomy of the arm and hand, and offer examples of various pathologic entities diagnosed with MR angiography. Finally, several imaging pitfalls that one must be aware of for accurate diagnosis are illustrated and reviewed.
  • |Humans[MESH]
  • |Image Enhancement/*methods[MESH]
  • |Ischemia/*diagnosis[MESH]
  • |Magnetic Resonance Angiography/*methods[MESH]
  • |Peripheral Vascular Diseases/*diagnosis[MESH]
  • |Practice Guidelines as Topic[MESH]
  • |Practice Patterns, Physicians'[MESH]
  • |Upper Extremity/*blood supply/pathology[MESH]





  • *{{pmid17967936}}
    *<b>[http://www.kidney.de/mlpefetch.php?search=17967936 Dynamic MR angiography of upper extremity vascular disease: pictorial review ]</b> Radiographics 2008; 28(1) ; e28 Stepansky F; Hecht EM; Rivera R; Hirsh LE; Taouli B; Kaur M; Lee VS

        *17967936*

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    Radiographics

    e28 1.28 2008