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  • CD8 T Cells Require Gamma Interferon To Clear Borna Disease Virus from the Brain and Prevent Immune System-Mediated Neuronal Damage #MMPMID16227271
  • Hausmann J; Pagenstecher A; Baur K; Richter K; Rziha HJ; Staeheli P
  • J Virol 2005[Nov]; 79 (21): 13509-18 PMID16227271garesp_yesshow ga
  • Borna disease virus (BDV) frequently causes meningoencephalitis and fatal neurological disease in young but not old mice of strain MRL. Disease does not result from the virus-induced destruction of infected neurons. Rather, it is mediated by H-2k-restricted antiviral CD8 T cells that recognize a peptide derived from the BDV nucleoprotein N. Persistent BDV infection in mice is not spontaneously cleared. We report here that N-specific vaccination can protect wild-type MRL mice but not mutant MRL mice lacking gamma interferon (IFN-?) from persistent infection with BDV. Furthermore, we observed a significant degree of resistance of old MRL mice to persistent BDV infection that depended on the presence of CD8 T cells. We found that virus initially infected hippocampal neurons around 2 weeks after intracerebral infection but was eventually cleared in most wild-type MRL mice. Unexpectedly, young as well as old IFN-?-deficient MRL mice were completely susceptible to infection with BDV. Moreover, neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus were severely damaged in most diseased IFN-?-deficient mice but not in wild-type mice. Furthermore, large numbers of eosinophils were present in the inflamed brains of IFN-?-deficient mice but not in those of wild-type mice, presumably because of increased intracerebral synthesis of interleukin-13 and the chemokines CCL1 and CCL11, which can attract eosinophils. These results demonstrate that IFN-? plays a central role in host resistance against infection of the central nervous system with BDV and in clearance of BDV from neurons. They further indicate that IFN-? may function as a neuroprotective factor that can limit the loss of neurons in the course of antiviral immune responses in the brain.
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    13509 21.79 2005