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  • Exploration of Association Between Respiratory Vaccinations With Infection and Mortality Rates of COVID-19 #MMPMID33588980
  • Abdulah DM; Hassan AB
  • Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021[Feb]; ä (ä): 1-16 PMID33588980show ga
  • OBJECTIVE: Respiratory disease vaccines may affect coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - associated infection and mortality rates due to vaccine nonspecific effects against viral infections. We compared the infection and mortality rates in relation to COVID-19 between countries with and without universal respiratory disease vaccine policies. METHODS: In this ecological study, 186 countries with COVID-19 statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO) were included. RESULTS: The study found that countries with universal BCG (bacillus Calmette Guerin) vaccine had significantly lower total infection and mortality rates, 0.2979 and 0.0077 versus 3.7445, and 0.0957/1000 people and confirmed cases (P < 0.001). The countries with universal pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), including PCV1, PCV2, and PCV3 vaccines, had significantly higher total mortality, 0.0111 versus 0.0080, respectively (P = 0.032). Higher income was associated with increasing total infection and mortality rates. Whereas, BCG vaccination was associated with a lower total mortality rate only (P = 0.030). The high-income countries were more likely to not receive universal BCG and receive second dose of meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV2) and third dose of PCV3 vaccination coverage. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection rates increased with increasing years of the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (P = 0.026) and pneumococcal conjugate third dose (PCV3). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that BCG vaccination could reduce the infection caused by COVID-19, and MCV2 vaccine years increases the total infection rate. This study identified high economic characteristics and not having universal BCG coverage as the independent risk factors of mortality by multivariate analysis.
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  • suck abstract from ncbi

    1 ä.ä 2021