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  • In silico drug discovery of major metabolites from spices as SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors #MMPMID33065388
  • Ibrahim MAA; Abdelrahman AHM; Hussien TA; Badr EAA; Mohamed TA; El-Seedi HR; Pare PW; Efferth T; Hegazy MF
  • Comput Biol Med 2020[Nov]; 126 (ä): 104046 PMID33065388show ga
  • Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious illness caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originally identified in Wuhan, China (December 2019) and has since expanded into a pandemic. Here, we investigate metabolites present in several common spices as possible inhibitors of COVID-19. Specifically, 32 compounds isolated from 14 cooking seasonings were examined as inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M(pro)), which is required for viral multiplication. Using a drug discovery approach to identify possible antiviral leads, in silico molecular docking studies were performed. Docking calculations revealed a high potency of salvianolic acid A and curcumin as M(pro) inhibitors with binding energies of -9.7 and -9.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Binding mode analysis demonstrated the ability of salvianolic acid A and curcumin to form nine and six hydrogen bonds, respectively with amino acids proximal to M(pro)'s active site. Stabilities and binding affinities of the two identified natural spices were calculated over 40 ns molecular dynamics simulations and compared to an antiviral protease inhibitor (lopinavir). Molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area energy calculations revealed greater salvianolic acid A affinity for the enzyme over curcumin and lopinavir with energies of -44.8, -34.2 and -34.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Using a STRING database, protein-protein interactions were identified for salvianolic acid A included the biochemical signaling genes ACE, MAPK14 and ESR1; and for curcumin, EGFR and TNF. This study establishes salvianolic acid A as an in silico natural product inhibitor against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease and provides a promising inhibitor lead for in vitro enzyme testing.
  • |*Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry[MESH]
  • |*Drug Discovery[MESH]
  • |*Molecular Docking Simulation[MESH]
  • |*Molecular Dynamics Simulation[MESH]
  • |*Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry[MESH]
  • |Betacoronavirus/*enzymology[MESH]
  • |COVID-19[MESH]
  • |Caffeic Acids/*chemistry/therapeutic use[MESH]
  • |Coronavirus 3C Proteases[MESH]
  • |Coronavirus Infections/*drug therapy/enzymology[MESH]
  • |Curcumin/*chemistry/therapeutic use[MESH]
  • |Humans[MESH]
  • |Lactates/*chemistry/therapeutic use[MESH]
  • |Pandemics[MESH]
  • |Pneumonia, Viral/*drug therapy/enzymology[MESH]
  • |Protease Inhibitors/*chemistry/therapeutic use[MESH]
  • |SARS-CoV-2[MESH]
  • |Thermodynamics[MESH]

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  • suck abstract from ncbi

    104046 ä.126 2020