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  • The clinical physiology of water metabolism Part I: The physiologic regulation of arginine vasopressin secretion and thirst
  • Weitzman RE; Kleeman CR
  • West J Med 1979[Nov]; 131 (5): 373-400
  • Water balance is tightly regulated within a tolerance of less than 1 percent by a physiologic control system located in the hypothalamus. Body water homeostasis is achieved by balancing renal and nonrenal water losses with appropriate water intake. The major stimulus to thirst is increased osmolality of body fluids as perceived by osmoreceptors in the anteroventral hypothalamus. Hypovolemia also has an important effect on thirst which is mediated by arterial baroreceptors and by the renin-angiotensin system. Renal water loss is determined by the circulating level of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP is synthesized in specialized neurosecretory cells located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus and is transported in neurosecretory granules down elongated axons to the posterior pituitary. Depolarization of the neurosecretory neurons results in the exocytosis of the granules and the release of AVP and its carrier protein (neurophysin) into the circulation. AVP is secreted in response to a wide variety of stimuli. Change in body fluid osmolality is the most potent factor affecting AVP secretion, but hypovolemia, the renin-angiotensin system, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hyperthermia and pain also have important effects. Many drugs have been shown to stimulate the release of AVP as well. Small changes in plasma AVP concentration of from 0.5 to 4 muU per ml have major effects on urine osmolality and renal water handling.
  • |Adolescent[MESH]
  • |Adult[MESH]
  • |Aged[MESH]
  • |Animals[MESH]
  • |Arginine Vasopressin/blood/metabolism/*secretion[MESH]
  • |Blood Volume[MESH]
  • |Body Fluids/physiology[MESH]
  • |Body Water/*physiology[MESH]
  • |Child[MESH]
  • |Child, Preschool[MESH]
  • |Dehydration/physiopathology[MESH]
  • |Diabetes Insipidus/physiopathology[MESH]
  • |Dogs[MESH]
  • |Female[MESH]
  • |Homeostasis[MESH]
  • |Humans[MESH]
  • |Hyperaldosteronism/physiopathology[MESH]
  • |Hypothalamus/physiology[MESH]
  • |Infant[MESH]
  • |Infant, Newborn[MESH]
  • |Kidney/physiology[MESH]
  • |Male[MESH]
  • |Middle Aged[MESH]
  • |Osmosis[MESH]
  • |Rats[MESH]
  • |Sheep[MESH]
  • |Thirst/*physiology[MESH]
  • |Vasopressins/physiology[MESH]
  • |Water-Electrolyte Balance[MESH]





  • *{{pmid394480}}
    *<b>[http://www.kidney.de/mlpefetch.php?search=394480 The clinical physiology of water metabolism Part I: The physiologic regulation of arginine vasopressin secretion and thirst ]</b> West J Med 1979; 131(5) ; 373-400 Weitzman RE; Kleeman CR

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    West J Med

    373 5.131 1979