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  • Protein interactions with nitric oxide synthases: controlling the right time, the right place, and the right amount of nitric oxide
  • Kone BC; Kuncewicz T; Zhang W; Yu ZY
  • Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2003[Aug]; 285 (2): F178-90
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent cell-signaling, effector, and vasodilator molecule that plays important roles in diverse biological effects in the kidney, vasculature, and many other tissues. Because of its high biological reactivity and diffusibility, multiple tiers of regulation, ranging from transcriptional to posttranslational controls, tightly control NO biosynthesis. Interactions of each of the major NO synthase (NOS) isoforms with heterologous proteins have emerged as a mechanism by which the activity, spatial distribution, and proximity of the NOS isoforms to regulatory proteins and intended targets are governed. Dimerization of the NOS isozymes, required for their activity, exhibits distinguishing features among these proteins and may serve as a regulated process and target for therapeutic intervention. An increasingly wide array of proteins, ranging from scaffolding proteins to membrane receptors, has been shown to function as NOS-binding partners. Neuronal NOS interacts via its PDZ domain with several PDZ-domain proteins. Several resident and recruited proteins of plasmalemmal caveolae, including caveolins, anchoring proteins, G protein-coupled receptors, kinases, and molecular chaperones, modulate the activity and trafficking of endothelial NOS in the endothelium. Inducible NOS (iNOS) interacts with the inhibitory molecules kalirin and NOS-associated protein 110 kDa, as well as activator proteins, the Rac GTPases. In addition, protein-protein interactions of proteins governing iNOS transcription function to specify activation or suppression of iNOS induction by cytokines. The calpain and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways are the major proteolytic systems responsible for the regulated degradation of NOS isozymes. The experimental basis for these protein-protein interactions, their functional importance, and potential implication for renal and vascular physiology and pathophysiology is reviewed.
  • |Animals[MESH]
  • |Calmodulin/metabolism[MESH]
  • |HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism[MESH]
  • |Humans[MESH]
  • |Nitric Oxide Synthase/*metabolism[MESH]
  • |Nitric Oxide/*metabolism[MESH]
  • |rac GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism[MESH]

  • *{{pmid12842859}}
    *<b>[ Protein interactions with nitric oxide synthases: controlling the right time, the right place, and the right amount of nitric oxide ]</b> Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2003; 285(2) ; F178-90 Kone BC; Kuncewicz T; Zhang W; Yu ZY


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    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol

    F178 2.285 2003