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What moves stock prices around credit rating changes?

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Using monthly and multi-day return windows, research shows that credit rating downgrades often reveal new information and lead to significant stock price reactions but that upgrades do not. Using intraday data, we revisit these findings and extend them by examining the possibility of informed trading ahead of the announcement of credit rating changes. Credit rating agencies delay public announcements of rating changes to provide issuers with time to review and respond to rating reports, which opens the door for informed trading in advance of credit rating changes. Using data on rating changes from S&P, Moody?s, and Fitch, we find a more modest price reaction to rating downgrades than documented elsewhere and show that stock prices respond to changes in long-term issuer ratings but not to changes in ratings of a single instrument or a subset of instruments. Most interestingly, we find that prices start moving before a downgrade announcement, controlling for other news and investor anticipation. These pre-announcement movements are concentrated among observations where credit analysts are motivated to disclose private information to advance their careers. The beneficiaries of these disclosures appear to be institutional investors.


Hate in the time of coronavirus: exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on violent extremism and terrorism in the West.

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Novel COVID-19 is having far-reaching consequences worldwide. Security and security management are not immune from this influence. Building on the scientific literature, this article explores the mixed impact of this unexpected macro-level phenomenon and its consequences on violent extremism and terrorism in the West, in the short and in the medium to long term. The paper looks at the influence on extremist beliefs and attitudes and, moreover, it examines the effects on extremist behaviors, with an emphasis on terrorist activities, drawing on a model of terrorist attack cycle. The COVID-19 pandemic can be interpreted as a global natural experiment that offers insight into causal processes, in the interplay among societal, group, and individual factors.


Well-Being Data Gathering during COVID-19: Exploring the Feasibility of a Contact Tracing and Community Well-Being Safeguarding Framework.

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Given the need for real time data to aid in decision-making at the community level, contact tracing applications (apps) are explored as a potential method of gauging overall community well-being. The context of contact tracing effectiveness and integration with artificial intelligence is provided, as well as ideas and suggestions for how to expand for use as a community-wide data gathering approach. This commentary seeks to explore dimensions around the use of such apps to help manage in times of crisis given the widespread and destructive impacts the pandemic has on community well-being, including negative economic impacts and social declines. By connecting with community well-being, the idea of a contact tracing framework would enable communities to track data and make decisions to help foster well-being across public health, economic and social domains.


The Mandate of Scholarly Mathematics Education Research: Moving Ourselves Forward.

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The 20th anniversary of this journal finds us at a crossroads in many ways. Mathematics education itself has always existed at an unclear intersection of mathematics and education. As well, in mathematics education, the poles of reform and traditional learning can pull the community apart. And now, in the world, we find ourselves at a crossroads in terms of priorities related to the future of the planet. In this article, I reflect on past work, and theorise about the future role of mathematics education research, given these new realities, in moving forward.


COVID-19 pandemic and the protection of workers? health from disinfectant chemicals.

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Objective and methods: This study examines the protection of workers from the ?COVID-19? pandemic, especially healthcare workers, disinfection workers, and future prospects in occupational health. To summarize this concept, I searched the major websites using the key terms ?COVID-19,? ?coronavirus,? ?pandemic,? ?workers? health,? and ?quarantine? or ?disinfection.? Results and conclusion: The use of disinfectants is recognized to be effective in preventing viruses, but this is also increasing the need to solve problems, such as the side effects caused by the increase in disinfectant use. This paper presents the precautions for safer use of chemicals handled by workers during quarantine and disinfection and proposes policy suggestions. The COVID-19 pandemic will have long-lasting effects on workers. Syndromic methods for monitoring illness outside of healthcare settings can be useful adjuncts to conventional disease reporting. From these results, it is important that the precautions for chemicals? safety handled by workers during quarantine and disinfection as well as policy suggestions for quarantine and disinfection workers are very important to protect workers.


A Comprehensive Survey on Machine Learning-Based Big Data Analytics for IoT-Enabled Smart Healthcare System.

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The outbreak of chronic diseases such as COVID-19 has made a renewed call for providing urgent healthcare facilities to the citizens across the globe. The recent pandemic exposes the shortcomings of traditional healthcare system, i.e., hospitals and clinics alone are not capable to cope with this situation. One of the major technology that aids contemporary healthcare solutions is the smart and connected wearables. The advancement in Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled these wearables to collect data on an unprecedented scale. These wearables gather context-oriented information related to our physical, behavioural and psychological health. The big data generated by wearables and other healthcare devices of IoT is a challenging task to manage that can negatively affect the inference process at the decision centres. Applying big data analytics for mining information, extracting knowledge and making predictions/inferences has recently attracted significant attention. Machine learning is another area of research that has successfully been applied to solve various networking problems such as routing, traffic engineering, resource allocation, and security. Recently, we have seen a surge in the application of ML-based techniques for the improvement of various IoT applications. Although, big data analytics and machine learning are extensively researched, there is a lack of study that exclusively focus on the evolution of ML-based techniques for big data analysis in the IoT healthcare sector. In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive review on the application of machine learning techniques for big data analysis in the healthcare sector. Furthermore, strength and weaknesses of existing techniques along with various research challenges are highlighted. Our study will provide an insight for healthcare practitioners and government agencies to keep themselves well-equipped with the latest trends in ML-based big data analytics for smart healthcare.


Can fiat currencies really hedge Bitcoin? Evidence from dynamic short-term perspective.

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Whereas much research has largely investigated the safe haven, diversifier and hedge proprieties of cryptocurrency, very few papers have analyzed the hedging issue of cryptocurrency with other assets. As such, this paper attempts to investigate the possibility if Bitcoin can be hedged by selected fiat currencies (EUR, JPY and GBP) as Bitcoin prices have experienced high and persistent volatility. To do so, we compute optimal hedge ratios between Bitcoin and fiat currencies over the period 02/02/2012?30/11/2017 based on the VAR-DCC-GARCH model, VAR-ADCC-GARCH model and VAR-component GARCH-DCC model. A rolling window analysis is employed to establish out-of-sample one-step-ahead forecasts of dynamic conditional correlations between different assets. This leads to establish time-varying hedge ratios and thus dynamic cross-hedging Bitcoin/fiat currency markets. The empirical results clearly show the time-varying correlations between Bitcoin and fiat currencies under different specifications, implying a dynamic behavior of the relationship between such assets. For all the proposed models, such dynamic correlations are rather characterized by trending downward over the period under study. The results also display time-varying hedge ratios which lead to an ongoing regular demand for rebalancing the hedged positions under different specifications. As a matter of fact, using various models which take into account different aspects of volatility and correlation structures allows to better implement dynamic hedging strategies.


Film as cultural diplomacy: South Korea?s nation branding through Parasite (2019).

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This study examines the nation branding of South Korea through the Oscar-winning film Parasite (2019) to understand the South Korean government?s approach toward cultural diplomacy, and its outcomes. Despite growing depoliticalization and decentralization, South Korea?s cultural diplomacy policy remains unilateral in embracing Parasite?s success for nation branding while drawing on expanding private-sector resources to produce and market the film. To explicate South Korea?s nation brand vis--vis Parasite, a Leximancer analysis of 8808 texts investigated concepts that are associated with the film as a complex bundle of images, meanings, associations, and experiences in the minds of international audiences. The texts associate Parasite with the national entity of South Korea and the country?s most significant cultural content export, the Korean Wave. Sentiment analyses through Leximancer also show positive attitudes, thus helping to reinforce the nation branding of Parasite and its successes as a tangible South Korean national resource, consistent with a soft power approach.


Intelligent system for COVID-19 prognosis: a state-of-the-art survey.

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This 21st century is notable for experiencing so many disturbances at economic, social, cultural, and political levels in the entire world. The outbreak of novel corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) has been treated as a Public Health crisis of global Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). Various outbreak models for COVID-19 are being utilized by researchers throughout the world to get well-versed decisions and impose significant control measures. Amid the standard methods for COVID-19 worldwide epidemic prediction, easy statistical, as well as epidemiological methods have got more consideration by researchers and authorities. One main difficulty in controlling the spreading of COVID-19 is the inadequacy and lack of medical tests for detecting as well as identifying a solution. To solve this problem, a few statistical-based advances are being enhanced and turn into a partial resolution up-to some level. To deal with the challenges of the medical field, a broad range of intelligent based methods, frameworks, and equipment have been recommended by Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning. As ML and DL have the ability of identifying and predicting patterns in complex large datasets, they are recognized as a suitable procedure for producing effective solutions for the diagnosis of COVID-19. In this paper, a perspective research has been conducted in the applicability of intelligent systems such as ML, DL and others in solving COVID-19 related outbreak issues. The main intention behind this study is (i) to understand the importance of intelligent approaches such as ML and DL for COVID-19 pandemic, (ii) discussing the efficiency and impact of these methods in the prognosis of COVID-19, (iii) the growth in the development of type of ML and advanced ML methods for COVID-19 prognosis,(iv) analyzing the impact of data types and the nature of data along with challenges in processing the data for COVID-19,(v) to focus on some future challenges in COVID-19 prognosis to inspire the researchers for innovating and enhancing their knowledge and research on other impacted sectors due to COVID-19.


The stakeholder model: its relevance, concept, and application in the Indonesian banking sector.

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This article examines the current Indonesian Financial Service Authority (IFSA) regulations on corporate governance that deal with the relevance, concept, and application of the stakeholder model in the Indonesian banking sector. This study shows that the current IFSA regulations on corporate governance in the Indonesian banking sector encourage the application of the stakeholder model. However, they contain a vague definition of a stakeholder, fail to properly identify the legitimate stakeholders of the Indonesian banking sector, and provide no principles that can be used to align bank stakeholders? interests. IFSA should revise these regulations so that they are more compatible with the theoretical basis and international best practices. This can be done through providing a concise definition of the concept of a stakeholder and offering normative and practical principles to be used when identifying the Indonesian banking sector legitimate stakeholders and aligning stakeholders? interests.


Re-visioning Ideological Assemblages Through De-punctualizing and Activist Science, Mathematics and Technology Education.

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It seems clear to many analysts that there are several existential and many ?normalized? threats to wellbeing of individuals, societies and environments?such as disruption from climate change, diseases from manufactured foods and species losses linked to habitat destruction?that have been associated with fields of science, mathematics and technology (and, likely, engineering). Culpability for such threats, while perhaps engaging much of humanity, seems most likely attributable to pro-capitalist individuals (e.g., financiers) and groups (e.g., corporations and transnational trade organizations)?which appear to have relatively successfully influenced most living and nonliving entities to form assemblages (dispositifs) that serve their self-interested ideologies. Given harms associated with such assemblages, it seems clear to many analysts that they need to be severely disrupted or, perhaps, replaced with alliances of entities that are based on ideological perspectives that may contribute to comprehensive wellbeing. Although pro-capitalist assemblages have been extremely resilient, it seems that current sociopolitical instability and, moreover, considerable disruption from the CoViD-19 pandemic may provide unprecedented opportunities for dramatic changes. In this article, after consideration of characteristics and extents of harms linked to fields of science, mathematics and technology/engineering, possibilities are described and critically defended for uses of a particular curriculum and pedagogical framework for helping students to imagine and, perhaps, realize new assemblages of entities that are held together by ideologies that they consider appropriate.


Investigating the effects of COVID-19 and public health expenditure on global supply chain operations: an empirical study.

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This fresh examination was a thought-provoking area that was required to be undertaken and to fill this gap, the researchers have examined the impact of Covid-19 and health expenditure on the global supply chain by utilizing balanced panel data for the period from January 2020 to June 2020. This study utilized a random effect, fixed effect, GMM, and FGLS approach. The outcomes of COVID-19 demonstrate a significant negative influence as per the FGLS model, whereas the health expenditure demonstrates a significant negative effect on the global supply chain under both the dynamic models i.e. GMM and FGLS. As far as manufacturing value-added is concerned it indicates a positive and significant influence on the global supply chain according to the FGLS model whereas, last but not least the logistics performance index has a significant positive effect on the global supply chain according to the results of GMM and FGLS models respectively. The global supply chain is the lifeline for the global economy; thus, it is suggested that under COVID-19 pandemic situation policymakers need to react quickly and take suitable policy actions to deal with this unprecedented pandemic driven economic crises and further the cross-border trading activities should not be stopped, rather governments should formulate smart lockdown strategies.


?I Want to Feel That I Live in China?: Imaginaries and Hospitality in International Students? (mis-)Encounters at a Top Chinese University.

-/- 2020; 15 (4): 588-620

Research on international students? experiences abroad has tended to rely on models of adjustment, integration and/or acculturation to describe their (mis-)encounters with different kinds of people (e.g., co-nationals, locals and other international students). This paper proposes to use the more fluid concepts of imaginaries and hospitality, leaving behind stages and phases of adaption and acculturation, and focusing on the influence of the Structure on their experiences. Based on a discursive pragmatic analysis of interview data with 20 international students at a top Chinese university, the authors review how the students describe the kind of hospitality experienced at this institution and the influence that it has on their (mis-)encounters. Culturalist, differentialist and essentialist imaginaries (static and fixed views of Chineseness) are often used to justify the lack of encounters and the ?segregation? and somewhat ?positive discrimination? that they experienced. However, the paper shows that, amongst others, the institutional hospitality management for international students leads to closed contexts of encounters and feelings of exclusion. Although the study serves as a case study and cannot be generalized to the many and varied experiences of international students in other universities in China, some recommendations are made to solve, at least in part, misconceptions about what interculturality and hospitality entail in the internationalization of higher education.


PLAAN: Pain Level Assessment with Anomaly-detection based Network.

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Automatic chronic pain assessment and pain intensity estimation has been attracting growing attention due to its widespread applications. One of the prevalent issues in automatic pain analysis is inadequate balanced expert-labelled data for pain estimation. This work proposes an anomaly detection based network addressing one of the existing limitations of automatic pain assessment. The evaluation of the network is performed on pain intensity estimation and protective behaviour estimation tasks from body movements in the EmoPain Challenge dataset. The EmoPain dataset consists of body part based sensor data for both the tasks. The proposed network, PLAAN (Pain Level Assessment with Anomaly-detection based Network), is a lightweight LSTM-DNN network which considers features based on sensor data as the input and predicts intensity level of pain and presence or absence of protective behaviour in chronic low back pain patients. Joint training considering body movement patterns, such as exercise type, corresponding to pain exhibition as a label improves the performance of the network. However, contrary to perception, protective behaviour rather exists sporadically alongside pain in the EmoPain dataset. This induces yet another complication in accurate estimation of protective behaviour. This problem is resolved by incorporating anomaly detection in the network. A detailed comparison of different networks with varied features is outlined in the paper, presenting a significant improvement with the final proposed anomaly detection based network.


Bio-signal data sharing security through watermarking: a technical survey.

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Due to smart healthcare systems highly connected information and communications technologies, sensitive medical information and records are easily transmitted over the networks. However, stealing of healthcare data is increasing crime every day to greatly impact on financial loss. In order to this, researchers are developing various cost-effective bio-signal based data hiding techniques for smart healthcare applications. In this paper, we first introduce various aspects of data hiding along with major properties, generic embedding and extraction process, and recent applications. This survey provides a comprehensive survey on data hiding techniques, and their new trends for solving new challenges in real-world applications. Then, we survey the various notable bio-signal based data hiding techniques. The summary of some notable techniques in terms of their objective, type of data hiding, methodology and database used, performance metrics, important features, and limitations are also presented in tabular form. At the end, we discuss the major issues and research directions to explore the promising areas for future research.


Cultivating Citizens with Confucian Cosmopolitanism: Defining the Purpose of Liberal Arts Education in the Asian Context.

-/- 2020; 15 (4): 564-87

In contrast to the continued decline of liberal arts education in the US, there has been a revived interest in liberal arts education in Asian countries in recent years. Grounded in a comprehensive understanding of the central tenets of liberal arts education in the West, this paper looks into the struggles Asian countries face in their exploration of liberal arts education and provides a direction for Asian countries in their efforts to practice liberal arts education. This paper establishes the deep connections between humanistic approaches of the Confucian tradition and liberal arts education by pointing to a common ground for the education of humanity. Ultimately, the purpose of liberal arts education, in the East as well as in the West, should be the liberation of human beings from the constraints of ignorance, prejudice and traditional customs and through the cultivation of a cosmopolitan morality that emphasizes unity, solidarity and the fusion of humankind. Chinese universities should contemplate the purpose and value of higher education in the 21st century and tap into the rich resources of Confucianism in order to give its liberal arts education a ?soul.?


Regime specific spillover across cryptocurrencies and the role of COVID-19.

-/- 2021; 7 (1):

The aim of this study is to examine the daily return spillover among 18 cryptocurrencies under low and high volatility regimes, while considering three pricing factors and the effect of the COVID-19 outbreak. To do so, we apply a Markov regime-switching (MS) vector autoregressive with exogenous variables (VARX) model to a daily dataset from 25-July-2016 to 1-April-2020. The results indicate various patterns of spillover in high and low volatility regimes, especially during the COVID-19 outbreak. The total spillover index varies with time and abruptly intensifies following the outbreak of COVID-19, especially in the high volatility regime. Notably, the network analysis reveals further evidence of much higher spillovers in the high volatility regime during the COVID-19 outbreak, which is consistent with the notion of contagion during stress periods.


Capturing attitudinal characteristics of decision-makers in group decision making: application to select policy recommendations to enhance supply chain resilience under COVID-19 outbreak.

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The impact of COVID-19 on the global outbreak of supply chain is enormous. It is crucial for governments to take policy recommendations to enhance the supply chain resilience to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19. For such a major issue, it is a common occurrence that a large number of decision-makers (DMs) are invited to participate in the decision-making process so as to ensure the comprehensiveness and reliability of decision results. Since the attitudinal characteristics of DMs are important factors affecting decision results, this study focuses on capturing the attitudinal characteristics of DMs in the large-scale group decision making process. The capturing process combines the ordinal k-means clustering algorithm, gained and lost dominance score method and personalized quantifiers. To enable DMs to express their cognitions in depth, we use the probabilistic linguistic term set to express the evaluation information of DMs. A case study on selecting the optimal policy recommendation for improving the integration capability of supply chain is given to illustrate the applicability of the proposed process. The superiority of the proposed algorithm is highlighted through sensitive analysis and comparative analysis.


The evident and the hidden factors of vitamin D status in older people during COVID-19 pandemic.

-/- 2021; 46 (1):

Purpose: Considering the COVID-19 pandemic, vitamin D is a target of research and speculation. Lockdown or home isolation reduces sunlight exposition and increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency. Special attention is needed for older people at risk of both severe forms of COVID-19 and vitamin D deficiency. This review aims to highlight the association of vitamin D and COVID-19 in two instances, the direct influence of vitamin D on the immune system, and the indirect risks for other vitamin D deficiency-related diseases, such as musculoskeletal properties in older persons. Methods: We performed a narrative review. Results: Whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID-19 poor prognosis, and if vitamin D supplementation may improve the post-infection outcomes is still unclear. In any case, the pandemic generates indirect burden, such as the sequence: home isolation, low sunlight exposition, vitamin D deficiency, and fragility fractures. Conclusion: Therefore, it is time to debate how to optimize vitamin D status in older people, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Short-term usage of three non-invasive ventilation interfaces causes progressive discomfort in healthy adults.

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Purpose: To evaluate the effect of three different non-invasive ventilation (NIV) interfaces on the subjective discomfort of healthy individuals, and on a set of physiological parameters hypothesized to change in correspondence to discomfort. Methods: Continuous pressure NIV was applied to 20 subjects using Total Face, Nasal, and Face masks for 10min each. Tidal volume (VT) and respiratory period (RP) were estimated from respiratory inductance plethysmography. Electrodermal activity was estimated from conductance signals. Heart rate variability was measured using the time-domain indices SDNN and RMSSD, and the respiratory sinus arrhythmia amplitude (RSAp). Parameters were referenced to 5-min rest periods at beginning and end of protocol. A Likert-like scale of subjective discomfort with the masks and the ventilation was applied after 1, 5, and 9min using each mask. Results: RP and VT increased with the three mask models. Whereas the mean heart rate and RSAp did not change, both SDNN and RMSSD increased during NIV with Nasal and Face masks. Spontaneous electrodermal activity fluctuations were less frequent during NIV than at rest, with significant differences for Total Face and Nasal masks. Discomfort with all masks increased from minutes 1 to 9, markedly in the Total Face mask, considered most uncomfortable by 11 subjects. Conclusion: In healthy subjects, the three masks resulted in similar respiratory responses to NIV. Correspondence between changes in physiological parameters and discomfort with NIV interface could not be detected, whereas self-report with the Likert-like scale identified progressive discomfort and the Total Face mask as the most uncomfortable interface. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42600-020-00114-3.


Back-shoring vs near-shoring: a comparative exploratory study in the footwear industry.

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After decades of off-shoring strategies, companies are often critically re-evaluating their earlier location decisions; in doing so, sometimes they implement the so-called relocation of second degree. Among them, back-shoring (i.e., relocation to the home country) and near-shoring (relocation to the home region) are two of the alternatives attracting growing interest from scholars. This paper aims to shed new light on the variables influencing the choice made between these two alternatives. As requested in the extant literature, a contingency approach is adopted, focusing attention on the footwear industry. Given the exploratory nature of the paper, evidence from 41 back-shoring and near-shoring strategies are analysed, comparing data from Spanish and Italian companies. Collected data are adapted to test hypotheses concerning three sets of variables: firms? characteristics, motivations for the second degree relocation and its barriers. Collected data show that firm?s size directly influences the chosen alternative since larger companies prefer to near-shore instead of back-shore. When considering motivations, while the ?made in? effect does not influence the firm?s choice, availability of skilled contractors and/or government aids induces companies to relocate to the home country instead of the home region. Finally, companies fearing encountering barriers, in terms of skilled contractors? availability and/or (re-)development of internal manufacturing competences, will prefer the back-shoring rather than the near-shoring option. The study is focused on two countries (Spain and Italy) where the manufacturing sector (and the footwear industry within it) is still relevant to the local economy. Findings cannot be generalized to countries/industries where the local industry has been totally dismantled, without a previous in-depth analysis. The findings obtained offer managers useful insights on the elements that should be carefully evaluated when considering back- and near-shore alternatives. Additionally, valuable insights are provided for policy makers that plan to design industrial policies supporting back-reshoring policy initiatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper in the extant literature addressing variables influencing the choice between back- and near-shoring alternatives.


Prescriptive analytics for impulsive behaviour prevention using real-time biometrics.

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The present biometric market segment has been captured by compact, lightweight sensors which are capable of reading the biometric fluctuations of a user in real-time. This biometric market segment has further facilitated rise of a new ecosystem of wearable devices helpful in tracking the real-time physiological data for Healthcare-related analysis. However, the devices in the smart-wearable ecosystem are limited to capturing and displaying the biometrics without any prescriptive analytics. This paper addresses this gap to analyse the human emotion space based on an individual?s state of mind over the past 60min and employs Deep Learning and Bayesian prediction techniques to predict the possibility of an impulsive outburst within upcoming few minutes. A lightweight smart processing device mounted with sensors captures the biometrics of the user and calibrate the same to the mental state of the user on a scale of zero to hundred. The results reveal that the deep learning algorithm along with the Bayesian probability module can predict the future mood fluctuations of the user with lower error than the other contemporary models. The predicted mood fluctuations has matched with the actual mood changes of the experimental subject within \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \pm 10 $$\end{document}10min of the predicted time index in 93% of the cases and within \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \pm 5 $$\end{document}5min in 82% of the cases.


Pandemic resilience and health systems preparedness: lessons from COVID-19 for the twenty-first century.

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The pandemic of COVID-19 disease has acted like a stress test on every aspect of life, but particularly exposed weaknesses of health systems design and capacity. There have been similar pandemics in the past, and the threat of more frequent future pandemics in the twenty-first century is real. It is therefore important to learn the right lessons with regard to health systems preparedness and resilience. The five design features that this paper discusses are related to the organization of primary care services, planned surge capacity in secondary and tertiary care, a robust disease surveillance system that is integrated with the health management information system, adequate domestic capacity in being able to innovate and scale up production and logistics of much needed medical products and a governance approach that recognizes the importance of the health systems being able to continuously learn and adapt to meet changing needs. In addition to this, the organizational capacity of the system to deliver required services would need more investment in financial resources, and a suitable health human resource policy.


COVID-19 pandemic in India: through psycho-social lens.

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COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented crisis that simultaneously affected different countries and communities across the globe. The large-scale psychosocial impact of the pandemic and the subsequent lockdown, is an experiential reality for many, in India. Despite this impact, a closer look at India?s response to the pandemic shows that the two strands of health and relief measures, continue to occupy centre-stage. The psycho-social aspects of the pandemic unfortunately largely remain undocumented and unaddressed. Using experiences of iCALL, National national level psycho-socialcounseling counselling service and a field action project of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, the paper throws light on the much-neglected experiential psycho-social dimensions of COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown in India. It describes the stressors experienced by users who approached iCALL and the consequent impact;especially among those who belonged to the vulnerable sections of the society. The nature of stressors as well as the impact reported by iCALL users, clearly points out to a complex interplay among several factors at individual, interpersonal, community and structural levels. The paper then, critically looks at the merits and limitations of the mental health framework that predominated the mental health response during the pandemic with its bio-medical and individualistic undertones; and suggests an alternative framing using a ?psycho-social? paradigm that views distress as an interaction between the psychological and social worlds. The paper asserts reciprocal linkages between development and psycho-social distress;highlighting the need to consciously integrate mental health issues into the development response. In the end, it makes an appeal for an inter sectoraldialogue, integrated response and advocacy for investing in mental health and psycho-social infrastructure to effectively respond to the pandemic.


Application of supply chain approach to improving hazard-resilient health services: framework analysis for ASEAN and options of implementation.

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Infectious diseases such as SARS and COVID-19, like other natural hazards, underline the interconnectedness of the countries. Both manufacturing and services sectors in the economies of Asia have outsourced supplies from different countries in order to gain a competitive advantage through effective value chain management. The motivations for this outsourcing are to achieve technological innovations, reduce end-product prices, and strengthen strategic competitiveness. This paper applies a supply chain approach to develop the concept of a hazard-resilient healthcare system (HRHS) and to explore ways how this might be achieved. After reviewing the current international thinking on HRHS, which has narrowly focused on building national capacities with national capabilities, it argues that a supply chain approach may provide a better, more robust, and in many ways more realistic, approach to enhance the hazard resilience of national healthcare systems. Within such an approach, capabilities of the local actors (local health authorities and healthcare providers) in a pandemic or disaster-prone situation remain important and should be further strengthened, but international support and assistance in times of emergency should also be a key plank of the system. In a changing world with more frequent high-impact pandemics and disasters, such international support need not be one way, but both ways. A system of mutual support may be developed by forming an effective international common pool of capability in responding to the health needs when a major disaster occurs anywhere in a region or globally. Even though serious limitations exist in the current thinking on HRHS, significant progress has been made on the international humanitarian assistance front, especially in the ASEAN region. While developments on this front have not been a part of the purview of the current international thinking on HRHS, it is argued that they may well form an important corner stone in a typical future national HRHS.


A RFID-Based Infection Prevention and Control Mechanism in Aged Care Living Residences.

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In recent years, aged care living has drawn attention because of population aging and extension of average lifespan. Moreover, the rapid development of information communication technology and the internet of things lay the foundation for the application of sensor networks and cloud computing on medical care. Most elderly often suffer from chronic diseases due to weaker immunity causing a higher infection risk. The problem of infection controlling is an essential issue for residences living in aged care facilities. In the past, for infection control, medical personnel use the manual method of tracking, investigating, and interviewing patients to obtain patient contact list. This method cannot identify residents who have a high risk of infection, distinguish the distance between patients and other residents, and evaluate the risk of infection. To isolate all the residents who contact patients is the only solution that does not only cause repulsion of other residents but also waste medical resources. This study proposes a visual infection control positioning system for aged care facilities using the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and IoT technology. It can calculate the distance between users and reduce the positioning error. The system combines location fingerprinting with the K-nearest neighbor algorithm to fix errors caused by signal fluctuation of RFID to improve the positioning accuracy. The system records the indoor movement path of the residents in a real-time manner through the positioning function. When infectious diseases spread in aged care living residences, to help medical personnel, the system can screen out residents with a high risk of infection who closely contact with patients according to the movement path of the patients and other residents, and visually display them. For some infectious diseases, residents who live together with patients may be infected even if they do not have contact with the patients closely. This system can also identify the residents whose cumulative contact time exceeds the limit according to the medical definition of various infectious diseases and input time value.


The social contagion of work avoidance goals in school and its influence on student (dis)engagement.

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Work avoidance goals, which refer to wanting to do as little as possible in school, are detrimental to school success. Given its maladaptive nature, studies have investigated the antecedents of work avoidance, such as the role of personal characteristics and social-contextual factors. The influence of one?s classmates, however, remains under-explored. Drawing from social contagion research, we examined whether work avoidance goals spread among classmates. Questionnaires were administered to 1524 adolescent students nested within 50 classes. Two waves of data were collected one semester apart. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that a student?s work avoidance in Time 2 was predicted by his/her classmates? work avoidance in Time 1. These results held even after controlling for one?s own Time 1 work avoidance. Moreover, work avoidance goals led to higher levels of disengagement and lower levels of engagement. The findings demonstrate that work avoidance goals are socially contagious and that they have negative consequences for students? engagement. This study extends ourtheoretical understanding of work avoidance by highlighting the vital role played by one?s classmates in shaping students? avoidance of schoolwork and the deleterious consequences that come with it.


Ambitious and anxious: How Chinese undergraduates succeed and struggle in American higher education. Yingyi Ma: New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2020. 312 pp., (hardcover), $35.00, ISBN: 978-0-231-18458-8.

-/- 2020; 15 (4): 678-80


Assessing the Origins, Evolution and Prospects of National Innovation Systems.

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This paper assesses the origins, evolution and prospects of national innovation systems (NISs) using bibliometric techniques. All available data in the Web of Science Core Collection database up to and including the year 2017 are considered in the analysis. Both the number of NIS studies and the number of citations of these studies reflect the influence of this topic and the attention and growing interest of the scientific community, public administrations and international organisations in NIS research. The co-citation analysis of cited references provides a historical view of the origins of the NIS, and the bibliographic coupling between the documents gives a current overview of the status of NIS research. Our approach highlights the fact that many studies belong to previous, well-developed research streams. We also examine the topics covered by recent studies in each stream and the evolution of the most common keywords over time. In conclusion, we propose a research agenda based on three pillars: (1) the adaptation of innovation systems to the current global economic crisis and the application of the Quintuple Helix model to deal with this new scenario, (2) the adaptation of innovation systems to developing countries and (3) the specific fit of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial innovations into NIS research.


Politics of citizenship during the COVID-19 pandemic: what can educators do?

-/- 2021; 6 (1):

As a once in a 100 years emergency, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in repercussions for the economy, the polity, and the social. Also, the ongoing pandemic is as much a teaching moment as it to reflect on the lack of critical citizenship education. The fault lines of the health system have become visible in terms of infection and death rates; the fault lines of the educational system are now apparent in the behavior of the citizens who are flouting the public health guidelines and, in certain cases, actively opposing these guidelines. The main objective of this commentary is to initiate a dialogue on the social contract between the state and the subjects and to see how education and educators can respond to the challenge of the new normal. It is contended that education under the new normal cannot afford to keep educating for unbridled productivity education under the new normal. It must have welfare, human connections, ethical relationships, environmental stewardship, and social justice front and center.


Forecasting and trading cryptocurrencies with machine learning under changing market conditions.

-/- 2021; 7 (1):

This study examines the predictability of three major cryptocurrencies?bitcoin, ethereum, and litecoin?and the profitability of trading strategies devised upon machine learning techniques (e.g., linear models, random forests, and support vector machines). The models are validated in a period characterized by unprecedented turmoil and tested in a period of bear markets, allowing the assessment of whether the predictions are good even when the market direction changes between the validation and test periods. The classification and regression methods use attributes from trading and network activity for the period from August 15, 2015 to March 03, 2019, with the test sample beginning on April 13, 2018. For the test period, five out of 18 individual models have success rates of less than 50%. The trading strategies are built on model assembling. The ensemble assuming that five models produce identical signals (Ensemble 5) achieves the best performance for ethereum and litecoin, with annualized Sharpe ratios of 80.17% and 91.35% and annualized returns (after proportional round-trip trading costs of 0.5%) of 9.62% and 5.73%, respectively. These positive results support the claim that machine learning provides robust techniques for exploring the predictability of cryptocurrencies and for devising profitable trading strategies in these markets, even under adverse market conditions.


Atteintes Pulmonaires Lies La Covid-19.

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Online sequential bundling: profit analysis and practice.

-/- ; (): 1-25

We investigate monopoly profit under a new online tying strategy, namely sequential bundling. This method allows customers to buy additional products at discounted prices immediately after purchasing one or some of the available products. This strategy has been practiced by Walmart and others but has not been modelled to date. We use microeconomics analysis to conduct a comparison of the gained profit with the three commonly used bundling strategies: no bundling, pure bundling and mixed bundling. The main result shows that the sequential bundling strategy yields higher profits in comparison to all three classic strategies. In particular, for the symmetric cost case, our model provides a useful tool for practitioners such as common online shops.


Diagnostic performance of chest CT in differentiating COVID-19 from other causes of ground-glass opacities.

-/- 2021; 52 (1):

Background: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of chest CT in differentiating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 causes of ground-glass opacities (GGO). Results: A total of 80 patients (49 males and 31 females, 46.48 16.09?years) confirmed with COVID-19 by RT-PCR and who underwent chest CT scan within 2?weeks of symptoms, and 100 patients (55 males and 45 females, 48.94 18.97?years) presented with GGO on chest CT were enrolled in the study. Three radiologists reviewed all CT chest exams after removal of all identifying data from the images. They expressed the result as positive or negative for COVID-19 and recorded the other pulmonary CT features with mention of laterality, lobar affection, and distribution pattern. The clinical data and laboratory findings were recorded. Chest CT offered diagnostic accuracy ranging from 59 to 77.2% in differentiating COVID-19- from non-COVID-19-associated GGO with sensitivity from 76.25 to 90% and specificity from 45 to 67%. The specificity was lower when differentiating COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 viral pneumonias (30.5?61.1%) and higher (53.1?70.3%) after exclusion of viral pneumonia from the non-COVID-19 group. Patients with COVID-19 were more likely to have lesions in lower lobes (p = 0.005), peripheral distribution (p < 0.001), isolated ground-glass opacity (p = 0.043), subpleural bands (p = 0.048), reverse halo sign (p = 0.005), and vascular thickening (p = 0.013) but less likely to have pulmonary nodules (p < 0.001), traction bronchiectasis (p = 0.005), pleural effusion (p < 0.001), and lymphadenopathy (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chest CT offered reasonable sensitivity when differentiating COVID-19- from non-COVID-19-associated GGO with low specificity when differentiating COVID-19 from other viral pneumonias and moderate specificity when differentiating COVID-19 from other causes of GGO.


67/w mit hochgradiger Hemiparese rechts und 2-maligem generalisiertem Krampfanfall: Vorbereitung auf die Facharztprfung: Fall47.

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The couple business as a unique form of business: a review of the empirical evidence.

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Businesses run by romantic couples?couple businesses?are an important social and economic phenomenon. These businesses are widespread and represent a distinct form of business; they can be large corporations or home-based businesses, they can make large or small revenues, and the couples running them can have high or low levels of education. Scholars from different disciplines have addressed couple businesses, which makes the literature base fragmented. In this review of 71 articles on couple businesses, we synthesize the research around three guiding questions: what is a couple business (descriptions), where does it come from (antecedents), and where does it lead (outcomes)? Providing a cohesive picture of empirical research on couple businesses adds clarity and richness to the research field and increases our understanding of the phenomenon. Avenues for further research are discussed in five thematic areas: conceptualizations of couple businesses, work-home boundaries, gendered power differentials, and antecedents and outcomes of couple businesses.


Work Resumption After Epidemic Using Three-Way Decisions.

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After the epidemic, all enterprises are faced with the difficult decision about whether the enterprise should resume work and production immediately, which is related to the safety and development of enterprises. The three-way decisions offer a novel study perspective to solve this problem. Firstly, we describe some relevant attributes of the enterprise with double hierarchy hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets, and construct double hierarchy hesitant fuzzy linguistic information systems for each enterprise. Secondly, we get the weights of attributes with the entropy weight method, and take the weighted aggregation of attributes information as the conditional probability that the enterprise is in a safe state. Next, we classify each enterprise according to its size. Considering the influence of different sizes of enterprises, we put forward the corresponding loss function matrix. Then we get the decision results about work resumption based on the principle of minimizing the loss, which demonstrates the practicability and effectiveness of our method. Finally, we compare the method proposed by us with the other method and discuss the advantages and limitations of our proposed method.


Susceptibility to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with ABO and Rh blood groups: a case-control study from Afghanistan.

-/- 2021; 22 (1):

Background: There are preliminary studies about the association between COVID-19 and ABO phenotypes and the results are controversial. There are only two studies which investigated the association of Rh blood groups in addition to ABO with COVID-19; however, in the statistical analysis ABO and Rh blood groups have been considered separately. Therefore, the present case-control study was performed to determine the association of COVID-19 with ABO blood groups considering the Rh blood groups simultaneously. The study was conducted in Kunduz COVID-19 treatment specific center, Spin-Zar Hospital (Kunduz Province, North East Afghanistan). A total of 301 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 1039 healthy blood donors as control group were included in the study. Results: The Rh? phenotype strongly increased the risk of COVID-19 (OR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.86?3.89, P < 0.001). Although blood group A increased the risk of developing COVID-19, the association did not reach statistical significance. In analysis of the combination phenotypes, the A? blood group remarkably increased the risk of COVID-19 (OR = 7.24, 95% CI 3.62?14.4, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the interaction of Rh and ABO is significant (P < 0.013). Conclusion: These findings indicate that susceptibility to COVID-19 is strongly associated with A? blood group.


Digital payments and consumer experience in India: a survey based empirical study.

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Propelled by recent policy initiatives and technological developments, India?s digital payment system is a promising success story in the making. At the same time, the data also points towards an increasing usage of cash. While aggregate country-level data can indicate overall preferences of citizens, we use a novel online survey-based dataset to understand how factors such as ?perception? and ?trust? in digital payments, and experience with online frauds, affect the payment behaviour of consumers. While demographic factors like age, gender and income are relevant factors which determine this choice, we find compelling evidence that a person?s usage of digital payment methods is influenced by her perception of these instruments, as well as her trust in the overall payments framework and banking system in general. We find that the degree to which past-experience with online fraud deters usage of digital payments varies with the purpose of the transaction.


A review on chest CT scanning parameters implemented in COVID-19 patients: bringing low-dose CT protocols into play.

-/- 2021; 52 (1):

Background: This study aims to review chest computed tomography (CT) scanning parameters which are utilized to evaluate patients for COVID-19-induced pneumonia. Also, some of radiation dose reduction techniques in CT would be mentioned, because using these techniques or low-dose protocol can decrease the radiation burden on the population. Main body: Chest CT scan can play a key diagnostic role in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, it can be useful to monitor imaging changes during treatment. However, CT scan overuse during the COVID-19 pandemic raises concerns about radiation-induced adverse effects, both in patients and healthcare workers. Conclusion: By evaluating the CT scanning parameters used in several studies, one can find the necessity for optimizing these parameters. It has been found that chest CT scan taken using low-dose CT protocol is a reliable diagnostic tool to detect COVID-19 pneumonia in daily practice. Moreover, the low-dose chest CT protocol results in a remarkable reduction (up to 89%) in the radiation dose compared to the standard-dose protocol, not lowering diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19-induced pneumonia in CT images. Therefore, its employment in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic is highly recommended.


CT pulmonary angiography in COVID-19 pneumonia: relationship between pulmonary embolism and disease severity.

-/- 2021; 52 (1):

Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the known sequels of COVID-19 infection. We aimed to assess the incidence of PE in patients with COVID-19 infection and to evaluate the relationship between the CT severity of the disease and the laboratory indicators. This was a retrospective study conducted on 96 patients with COVID-19 infection proved by positive PCR who underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with a calculation of the CT severity of COVID-19 infection. Available patients? complaint and laboratory data at the time of CTPA were correlated with PE presence and disease severity. Results: Forty patients (41.7%) showed positive PE with the median time for the incidence of PE which was 12?days after onset of the disease. No significant correlation was found between the incidence of PE and the patients? age, sex, laboratory results, and the CT severity of COVID-19. A statistically significant relation was found between the incidence of PE and the patients? desaturation, hemoptysis, and chest pain. A highly significant correlation was found between the incidence of PE and the rising in the D-dimer level as well as the progressive CT findings when compared to the previous one. Conclusion: CT progression and the rising in D-dimer level are considered the most important parameters suggesting underlying PE in patients with positive COVID-19 infection which is commonly seen during the second week of infection and alert the use of CT pulmonary angiography to exclude or confirm PE. This is may help in improving the management of COVID-19 infection.


The Struggle for Legitimacy in Business and Human Rights Regulation?a Consideration of the Processes Leading to the UN Guiding Principles and an International Treaty.

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After the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) were adopted in 2011, an international treaty has been being negotiated since 2014. The two instruments reveal similarities and also conflicts regarding the adequate organization of the global economy based on human rights. The focus in this article will be on the processes leading to these instruments, because they themselves mirror different understandings of governance in the field of business and human rights as well as the struggle over the power of definition and legitimacy. The UNGPs were developed on the basis of global multi-stakeholder consultations, underlining legitimacy through broad inclusion. There are varying judgements as to the success of this approach. The process towards the treaty follows the traditional path of negotiations at UN level. These negotiations reveal a struggle for recognition of the legitimacy of the process itself. Both procedures have shortcomings with regard to legitimacy and show the need for a revision concerning the inclusion of stakeholders. The complementarity of a soft and hard law instrument may enhance the creation of a level playing field in the global economy, thereby strengthening human rights.


Imaging of COVID-19 simulators.

-/- 2021; 52 (1):

Background: Coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It was highly contagious spreading all over the world, with a rapid increase in the number of deaths. The reported cases have reached more than 14 million with more than 600,000 deaths around the world. So, the pandemic of COVID-19 became a surpassing healthcare crisis with an intensive load on the healthcare resources.In this study, the aim was to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia from its mimickers as atypical infection, interstitial lung diseases, and eosinophilic lung diseases based on CT, clinical, and laboratory findings. Results: This retrospective study included 260 patients, of which 220 were confirmed as COVID-19 positive by two repeated RT-PCR test and 40 were classified as non-COVID by two repeated negative RT-PCR test or identification of other pathogens, other relevant histories, or clinical findings.In this study, 158 patients were male (60.7 %) and 102 patients were female (39.3%). There was 60.9% of the COVID-19 group were male and 39.1% were female. Patients in the non-COVID group were significantly older (the mean age was 46.4) than those in the confirmed COVID-19 group (35.2y). In the COVID-19 group, there was exposure history to positive cases in 84.1% while positive exposure history was 20% in the non-COVID group. Conclusion: The spectrum of CT imaging findings in COVID-19 pneumonia is wide that could be contributed by many other diseases making the interpretation of chest CTs nowadays challenging to differentiate between different diseases having the same signs and act as deceiving simulators in the era of COVID-19.


Life Engineering: Towards a new discipline.

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COVID-19 outbreak, social distancing and mass testing in Kenya-insights from a mathematical model.

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As reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), the world is currently facing a devastating pandemic of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which started as an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown cause in the Wuhan city of China in December 2019. Since then, the respiratory disease has exponentially spread to over 210 countries. By the end of April, COVID-19 had caused over three million confirmed cases of infections and over 200,000 fatalities globally. The trend poses a huge threat to global public health. Understanding the early transmission dynamics of the infection and evaluating the effectiveness of control measures is crucial for assessing the potential for sustained transmission to occur in new areas. We employed a SEIHQRD delay differential mathematical transmission model with reported Kenyan data on cases of COVID-19 to estimate how transmission varies over time and which population to target for mass testing. The model is concise in structure, and successfully captures the course of the COVID-19 outbreak, and thus sheds light on understanding the trends of the outbreak and the vulnerable populations. The results show that, the government should target population in the informal settlement for mass testing and provide affordable sanitizers and clean water to this population. The model results also indicate that people with pre-existing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) should be identified and given special medical care. Given the absence of vaccine at the moment, non-pharmaceutical intervention is needed to effectively reduce the final epidemic size.


Challenges to open innovation in traditional SMEs: an analysis of pre-competitive projects in university-industry-government collaboration.

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Governments are increasingly focusing their efforts on stimulating innovation within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). As a result, university-industry-government collaboration is gaining importance among the agenda of policymakers to enable open innovation in SMEs. However, these inter-organisational relationships often fail to meet expectations, especially when projects are oriented to pre-competitive R&D. Nevertheless, the literature has not yet provided sufficient evidence of the challenges related to the participation of traditional SMEs (i.e., low- and medium-low tech SMEs) in this specific type of collaboration. We collected qualitative data to analyse longitudinally three pre-competitive projects, exploring the main challenges faced by traditional SMEs. We have bracketed the projects in four phases: initiation and planning phase, execution phase, closing phase, and monitoring and control phase. For each of these phases we have individuated firm- and project-level challenges, providing practical and theoretical insights for open innovation scholars.


Lungenbeteiligung bei Tumorkrankheiten.

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The lungs are often involved in tumors and are affected in a wide variety of ways. Lung cancer comprises one of the most common cancer entities and has been characterized by avast expansion of treatment approaches in recent years. Moreover, the lungs are acommon metastatic site of multiple other cancer entities. Various treatment modalities, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor cell therapy, and radiotherapy approaches can cause pulmonary side effects. Finally, many patients suffer from pulmonary comorbidities which may mutually impact the clinical course and prognosis of the cancer disease. As examples, various aspects, such as pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are discussed.


Hopf Bifurcation and Stability Switches Induced by Humoral Immune Delay in Hepatitis C.

-/- 2020; 51 (4): 1673-95

The role of humoral immune delay on the dynamics of HCV infection incorporating both the modes of infection transmission, namely, viral and cellular transmissions with a non-cytolytic cure of infected hepatocytes is studied. The local and global asymptotic stability of the boundary equilibria, namely, infection-free and immune-free equilibrium are analyzed theoretically as well as numerically under the conditions on the basic reproduction number and the humoral immune reproduction number. The existence of Hopf bifurcation and consequent occurrence of bifurcating periodic orbits around the humoral immune activated equilibrium are illustrated. The findings show that Hopf bifurcation and stability switches occur under certain conditions as the bifurcation parameter crosses the critical values. Furthermore, the dynamical effect of the development rate of B cells is investigated numerically. The results obtained show that the system becomes unstable from stable and regains stability from instability depending on the development rate of B cells for a fixed delay value. Further, the results suggest that a high antigenic stimulation in humoral immunity is beneficial for uninfected hepatocytes with a significant reduction in virions density.


Editors? note.

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Development and testing of material extrusion additive manufactured polymer?textile composites.

-/- 2021; 8 (1):

The adoption of Additive Manufacturing (AM) has gradually transformed the fashion industry through innovation and technology over the last decade. Novel AM systems and techniques are continuously being developed, leading to the application of AM polymers with textiles and fabrics in the fashion industry. This work investigates the development and testing of polymer?textile composites using polylactic acid (PLA) filaments on synthetic mesh fabrics using direct material extrusion (ME). An aspect of this paper highlights the appropriate combination of printing material, textile substrate, and printer settings to achieve excellent polymer?textile adhesion. Details of the printing process to create polymer?textile composites are described, as are the interfacial strength results of the T-peel tests, and the observed failure modes post-testing. The peel strengths for different ME bonded polymer?textile composites are examined and used to identify the compatibility of materials. This work visualised the potential of direct ME of polymers onto textile fabrics as a material-joining approach for new textile functionalisation, multi-material composite explorations and innovative aesthetic print techniques. This work also adds to the limited knowledge of AM polymer?textile composites, which can provide helpful information for designers and researchers to develop new applications and facilitate future research development in smart embedded and programmable textiles.


Praxis | Tagungen und Messen.

-/- 2021; 111 (1): 49-51


COVID-19 classification in X-ray chest images using a new convolutional neural network: CNN-COVID.

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Purpose: COVID-19 causes lung inflammation and lesions, and chest X-ray and computed tomography images are remarkably suitable for differentiating the new disease from patients with other lung diseases. In this paper, we propose a computer model to classify X-ray images of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Chest X-ray exams were chosen over computed tomography scans because they are low cost, results are quickly obtained, and X-ray equipment is readily available. Methods: A new CNN network, called CNN-COVID, has been developed to classify X-ray patient?s images. Images from two different datasets were used. The images of Dataset I is originated from the COVID-19 image data collection and the ChestXray14 repository, and the images of Dataset II belong to the BIMCV COVID-19+ repository. To assess the accuracy of the network, 10 training and testing sessions were performed in both datasets. A confusion matrix was generated to evaluate the model?s performance and calculate the following metrics: accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SE), and specificity (SP). In addition, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and Areas Under the Curve (AUCs) were also considered. Results: After running 10 tests, the average accuracy for Dataset I and Dataset II was 0.9787 and 0.9839, respectively. Since the weights of the best test results were applied in the validation, it was obtained the accuracy of 0.9722 for Dataset I and 0.9884 for Dataset II. Conclusions: The results showed that the CNN-COVID is a promising tool to help physicians classify chest images with pneumonia, considering pneumonia caused by COVID-19 and pneumonia due to other causes.


Emergency medicine airway leads: a rapid response distributed educational model for emergency department COVID-19 airway management.

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With the first case of COVID-19 confirmed in Canada in early 2020, our country joined in the fight against a novel pathogen in a global pandemic. The stress of uncertainty and practice change was most apparent in the emergency department when it came to managing known or suspected COVID-19 patients requiring airway management. Recognizing the need for a coordinated approach, a province wide rapid response distributed model of continuing professional development for airway management was developed utilizing Airway Leads to help prepare front-line medical personnel providing airway management for these patients. Airway Leads worked with local physicians to deliver consistent, high quality airway education across the province during the initial surge of cases. Education included both in person and virtual sessions along with real time ongoing support through provincial guidelines, videos, and other documents. Physician reported ?stress level? pre- and post-Airway Lead support declined from a median score of 9 to 7 (on a 10-point Likert Scale).


Response to Letter by G. McEachen: ?Receiving patients with vital signs absent from paramedics?.

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Is dexamethasone an effective treatment for severe COVID-19 patients: Journal Club review.

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The future of Dental Public Health.

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 10-1


Widening inequalities.

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 5


Stimulated Low-Frequency Raman Scattering in Brome Mosaic Virus.

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We experimentally register stimulated low-frequency Raman scattering (SLFRS) in the suspension of brome mosaic virus (BMV) in phosphate buffer with very high conversion efficiency. We identify two components of the SLFRS spectrum as the breathing and quadrupole modes of BMV and determine damping characteristics and gain factors for these modes. We show that, using the core?shell model for BMV and taking into account the influence of the environment, the acoustic properties of individual components of such a composite nanosystem can be determined. Thus, we define the sound velocity in the RNA core of BMV, in view of spectral characteristics of SLFRS.


How does paediatric dentistry recover post-pandemic?

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 14-9


Challenges present opportunities.

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 4


Enduring the great recession: Economic integration in the European Union.

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Scholars have long feared that regional economic specialization, fostered by freer trade, would make the European Union vulnerable to economic downturn. The most acute concerns have been over the adoption of the common currency: by adopting the euro, countries renounce their ability to meet an asymmetric shock with independent revaluations of their currencies. We systematically test the prediction that regional specialization increases vulnerability to economic downturn using a novel dataset that covers all of the EU?s subnational regions and major sectors of the economy between 2000 and 2013. We find that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the most specialized regions actually fared better during the 2008-09 global financial crisis. Specialized regions performed worse only in states that remained outside the Eurozone. The heightened vulnerability of non-Eurozone states cannot be attributed to fiscal or social policy failures. Rather, our results suggest the common currency may have helped Eurozone members share risk. This bodes well for the resiliency of the EU, even as it navigates another economic downturn from the asymmetric impact of the novel coronavirus.Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1007/s11558-020-09410-0)


Spatial prediction and mapping of the COVID-19 hotspot in India using geostatistical technique.

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The world has now facing a health crisis due to outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). The numbers of infection and death have been rapidly increasing which result in a serious threat to the social and economic crisis. India as the second most populous nation of the world has also running with a serious health crisis, where more than 8,300,500 people have been infected and 123,500 deaths due to this deadly pandemic. Therefore, it is urgent to highlight the spatial vulnerability to identify the area under risk. Taking India as a study area, a geospatial analysis was conducted to identify the hotspot areas of the COVID-19. In the present study, four factors naming total population, population density, foreign tourist arrivals to India and reported confirmed cases of the COVID-19 were taken as responsible factors for detecting hotspot of the novel coronavirus. The result of spatial autocorrelation showed that all four factors considered for hotspot analysis were clustered and the results were statistically significant (p value ?3 and >?0.7295 respectively). The present analysis reveals that the reported cases of COVID-19 are higher in Maharashtra, followed by Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. The spatial result and geospatial methodology adopted for detecting COVID-19 hotspot in the Indian subcontinent can help implement strategies both at the macro and micro level. In this regard, social distancing, avoiding social meet, staying at home, avoiding public transport, self-quarantine and isolation are suggested in hotspot zones; together with, the international support is also required in the country to work jointly for mitigating the spread of COVID-19.Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (10.1007/s41324-020-00375-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Facing crisis periods: a proposal for an integrative model of environmental scanning and strategic issue diagnosis.

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The aim of this study is to examine the way top managers scan environmental conditions to diagnose and interpret issues during periods of crisis. Despite each of these processes being widely and individually represented in the research literature, there is a lack of integrative models that examine their internal dynamics in-depth. In this study, structural equation modeling methodology (EQS 6.3) was applied to a sample of 120 top managers to examine how the cognitive orientation of scanning (rational vs. intuitive analysis of environment) may influence final issue categorizations. Results confirm that not only is procedural rationality needed when scanning the environment, as traditional arguments have posited, but also that intuition plays a relevant role, complementing rational processes and configuring a mixed set of competencies to assess different issue dimensions, such as favorability, urgency, and influence.


COVID-19 Pandemic Related to Anxiety Disorder Among Communities Using Public Transport at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, March 2020: Cross-sectional Study Design.

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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be the World Health Organization?s focus for action for managing the spread and mortality. Public transport is mostly used in the city to serve many people at a time. It was a risky area for contracting the infection. The mental health of a community is vital to promote their immunity and day-to-day activities of humans. This study aimed to determine general anxiety disorder among public transport users in relation to new coronavirus pandemic during the initial phase at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 15 to 25, 2020, using a stratified sampling technique. The structured interview was used to collect information on demographic data and general anxiety disorder for the past 2weeks related to COVID-19. Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 was used to assess the outcome variable, and logistic regression analysis at a 95% confidence interval, p?


From Crisis to Nationalism?: The Conditioned Effects of the COVID-19 Crisis on Neo-nationalism in Europe.

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Will nationalism thrive in times of crisis? A broad segment of scholarly literature has found that a crisis often leads to the resurgence of nationalism. When the coronavirus started to spread rapidly in Europe, individual European nation states unilaterally closed their borders, hoarded critical medical supplies, and played blame games. The early period of the pandemic crisis revealed some hybrid form of medical nationalism, economic nationalism, and everyday nationalism. However, the common crisis has also heightened the importance of regional solidarity, and reinforces a strengthening of cross-national cooperation and multilateral institutions. Based on empirical discussions, this research offers an analytical framework to establish the hypothetic mechanisms of understanding this mixed phenomenon. Delving into the interaction between crisis and nationalism, this article argues that the causation from one to the other is not a linear, one-way process. There are competing mechanisms through which both nationalists and liberalists can use the crisis to push for their political agenda. Whether there will be a new wave of neo-nationalism in Europe is largely contingent on the responses the EU and the member states adopt in handling domestic and regional challenges in the post-pandemic era. Therefore, instead of simply exploring the causal relation between crisis and nationalism, more-nuanced questions can be examined in the future concerning the conditions under which and the mechanisms through which a crisis is more/less likely to provoke neo-nationalism.


Improving Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Learning Through Use of Online Graduate Engineering Courses During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

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In order to provide undergraduate students with a full, rich online learning experience we adapted pre-existing online content including graduate courses from Johns Hopkins University Engineering for Professionals (JHU EP) program. These online courses were designed using published methodologies and held to a high level of rigor of a Masters-level curriculum. Adapting pre-existing online course material enabled us to more rapidly adapt to the COVID-19 shutdown of in-person education. We adapted content to meet the majority of lab-based learning objectives rather than generating self-recorded lecture material and allowing us to focus faculty time on addressing student needs. Here we discuss benefits, challenges, and methods for replicating these courses, and lessons to be applied in future offerings from this experience.Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (10.1007/s43683-020-00041-w) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Developing Effective Screencast Modules for Teaching Computational Techniques in Remote Modalities.

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Here we describe a systematic approach towards creating effective screencast based modules for teaching computational techniques in remote and online modalities. We adopted a multi-stage approach to create screencast videos that replaced in-person demos and active learning content in a finite element analysis based class. The stages include systematic preparation of video data and script; production stage, for recording and editing of captured video and audio; and post-production stage, for uploading generated media files into our learning management system. Modules were paired with assignments, thereby enhancing student learning and enabling assessment of module content efficacy. Our approach and technology received highly positive reception from students. Students also successfully navigated all associated assignments and final course project, which builds upon the content addressed in the modules. We identified several avenues for improvement in continued future offerings of such modules. We have outlined our design experience and student reception of screencast based modules for creating engaging learning content in remote teaching modalities. The description has been presented in form of teaching tips for other educators to adopt for their teaching needs.


Disruptions and resilience in global container shipping and ports: the COVID-19 pandemic versus the 2008?2009 financial crisis.

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Economic shocks test the resilience and adaptability of the shipping industry and container ports. Each crisis triggers different ramifications in the container market. This paper investigates the temporal and spatial sequences of the supply and demand shocks of COVID-19 on container ports and the container shipping industry by comparing these events to the 2008?2009 financial crisis. Using operational and financial data from primary and secondary sources, we analyze short-term impacts and their differences, the reasons for these variations, and the evolution in the adaptive capacity and resilience of ports, terminal operators, and carriers. The analysis revolves around several inter-related domains: impacts on global supply chains; impacts on operational aspects, market structure, and strategic behavior of shipping lines and terminal operators; impacts on port activity levels in terms of vessel calls and container volumes handled; and network impacts in terms of changes in aspects of container port connectivity. The changes observed and the strategic behavior of the market players involved reveal that further adaptation mechanisms, such as slow steaming, economies of scale, and capacity management, have been applied differently between the financial crisis and COVID-19, resulting in different outcomes. For an external shock such as COVID-19, impacts are the outcome of how ports and the shipping industry fit within complex supply chains and the cargo composition handled by ports.


CO-aVoID: coronavirus outbreak affecting variability of presentations to a local emergency department.

-/- ; (): 1-5

Background: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public health, specifically on patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with non-COVID-related diseases, remains largely undocumented. Objective: This study explored how overall rates of presentations to the emergency department were impacted immediately after the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, and specifically how key presenting symptoms representing emergency, standard and low-acuity conditions were impacted. Methods: A sequential modified Delphi survey and cross-sectional analysis of administrative census data from a tertiary care center in New Brunswick, Canada, were performed. Details of ED presentations for emergency, standard and low-acuity conditions from February 1 to April 30, 2020, were compared to data from previous years. Results: There was a significant decrease in the number of patients visiting the ED with emergency, standard and low-acuity complaints immediately after March 13, 2020, compared to 2019. The proportion of females and males remained similar, with a median age of 48years in 2020 and 44years in 2019. Total presentation patterns to the ED (registrations, admissions to hospital and left without being seen numbers) decreased, compared to previous years. Conclusions: We report a predictable decrease in patient visits to the ED with minor, non-life-threatening conditions during a pandemic. However, we also report a decrease in presentations for emergency and standard conditions. Improved messaging highlighting the need to seek help for ?true? emergencies, while providing non-ED options for minor, non-life-threatening conditions, may be helpful under normal circumstances and during future pandemics. Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (10.1007/s43678-020-00036-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Plandemic doctor.

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Virtual grand rounds in the Calgary Emergency Medicine Department.

-/- ; (): 1


Dentists back Healthwatch call to fix system in crisis .

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 7


Trust yourself.

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 25-6


Sickness absence: Return to work interviews.

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 27


The challenges facing dental outreach charities.

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 12-3


NASDAL: Prices hold up.

-/- 2021; 34 (1): 8


Editorial .

-/- ; (): 1-3


Green bonds issuance: insights in low- and middle-income countries.

-/- 2021; 6 (1):

Former reports of Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) tended to focus on the equity side of investing, and today green bonds also offer and introduce sustainability factors. This paper is about the relevance, potential benefits and key arguments for countries with low-and middle-incomes where financial markets are not comparable with those in developed countries. We begin by stating clearly the relevance of a green economy transformation, highlight the development challenges they face and talk about how a green economy approach can help to solve these challenges. Then an outline of the progress that has been made in this panel, and the economic and social benefits that a green economy can potentially offer to Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMIC?s) will be underlined. Finally, we will make recommendations on the range of potential areas for intervention.


The movement within faith towards adulthood in children who have been nurtured in a Christian context: a longitudinal account of how children develop perspective in interpreting the biblical creation narrative.

-/- ; (): 1-19

In 2006 and then, seven years later in 2013, a small scaled research project was carried out into Christian children?s developing perspectives as they encounter sacred text from the context of their home lives (Worsley in Br J Relig Educ 28(3):247-257, 2006, Br J Relig Educ 35(1):55?71, 2013). Fourteen years on in 2020, these same children and young people were contacted with a similar interview and the results are offered, giving a rare longitudinal insight into the process of meaning making. In order to comment on the meaning-making interpretative processes that children employ at different key stages of development, the insights of hermeneutic phenomenology and of developmental psychology have been used, detailing their former stage in 2006, the seven years later in 2013 and finally their current stage. This article offers qualitative insights into children?s and young people?s perspectives from within their developing world views. The scriptural understanding of these children is given alongside an hermeneutical commentary.


Relative Wages of Immigrant Men and the Great Recession.

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Using CPS data from 2007 to 2012, we examine the contemporaneous effect of the Great Recession on therelative wages of immigrant men. Compared to pre-recession period, immigrants see a modest decline in their relative wages during the recession regardless of model specification. After the recession, immigrants? relative wages largely recover from the recession-induced decline, but the wage disadvantage does not completely revert back to its pre-recession level. Selective in- and out-migration by immigrants or selection of natives into employment do not seem to drive the results. It appears that, during therecession, immigrants may have traded higher employment with lower wages and employers might have been willing to hire them as a cost-saving measure. The results could have implications for how relative wages of immigrants respond to the ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic Recession.


Molecular modeling of natural and synthesized inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein.

-/- ; (): 1-16

Purpose: Viral diseases increasingly endanger the world public health because of the transient efficacy of antiviral therapies. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been recently identified as caused by a new type of coronaviruses. This type of coronavirus binds to the human receptor through the Spike glycoprotein (S) Receptor Binding Domain (RBD). The spike protein is found in inaccessible (closed) or accessible (open) conformations in which the accessible conformation causes severe infection. Thus, this receptor is a significant target for antiviral drug design. Methods: An attempt was made to recognize 111 natural and synthesized compounds in order to utilize them against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to inhibit Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using simulation methods, such as molecular docking. The FAF-Drugs3, Pan-Assay Interference Compounds (PAINS), ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) databases along with Lipinski?s rules were used to evaluate the drug-like properties of the identified ligands. In order to analyze and identify the residues critical in the docking process of the spike glycoprotein, the interactions of proposed ligands with both conformations of the spike glycoprotein was simulated. Results: The results showed that among the available ligands, seven ligands had significant interactions with the binding site of the spike glycoprotein, in which angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is bounded. Out of seven candidate molecules, six ligands exhibited drug-like characteristics. The results also demonstrated that fluorophenyl and propane groups of ligands had optimal interactions with the binding site of the spike glycoprotein. Conclusion: According to the results, our findings indicated the ability of six ligands to prevent the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to its cognate receptor, providing novel compounds for the treatment of COVID-19. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42600-020-00122-3.


Investigating the relationship between volatilities of cryptocurrencies and other financial assets.

-/- ; (): 1-27

This paper analyzes the relationships between volatilities of five cryptocurrencies, American indices (S&P500, Nasdaq, and VIX), oil, and gold. The results of the BEKK-GARCH model show evidence of a higher volatility spillover between cryptocurrencies and lower volatility spillover between cryptocurrencies and financial assets. The results of the DCC-GARCH model identify an important effect of the launch of Bitcoin futures. During the stability period, the overarching implications of the results are that there is a persistence of correlation between cryptocurrencies in high positive value and low dynamic conditional correlations between cryptocurrencies and financial assets. Also, we find that Bitcoin and gold are considered hedges for the US investors before the coronavirus crisis. Our results show that cryptocurrencies may offer diversification benefits for investors and are diversifiers during the stability period. At the beginning of 2020, we observe that the conditional correlation increased between cryptocurrencies, stock indexes, and oil which confirm the effect of the coronavirus contagion between them. Unlike gold, digital assets are not a safe haven for US investors during the coronavirus crisis.


Opening up is not showing up: human volition after the pandemic.

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A global pandemic on the scale of Covid-19 upsets all standard decision protocols. Pressure from politicians to "open up" the economy presumes that individuals grant credible trust to politicians and merchants eager to recover customers. The asymmetric concern for safety compounds normal heuristics. The Peircean pragmatic maxim reminds us that it is the perceived effects of a post-pandemic society and economy that will drive human volition in the aftermath of Covid-19. Opening up does not equal showing up.


Possible solutions for oxygenation support in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

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Purpose: Due to the large number of patients with respiratory deficiency during the COVID-19 pandemic, several governments and their respective health care services have been studying ways to complement the care provided by offering immediate solutions. In view of this, the aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the advantages and disadvantages of possible solutions in oxygenation support. Methods: This systematic review used the PRISMA-P methodology and sought to list alternatives in oxygenation support that are being applied and studied worldwide. A bibliographic search was conducted in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Central databases, using the keywords SARS-CoV-2, COVID19, or coronavirus; combined with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation support, low-cost, anesthesia, anesthesia machine, and ventilation therapy. The records were also found in the gray literature. Results: The search found 85 publications of which 41 articles were considered after excluding duplicate articles, reading the title and summary, and reading the articles in full. The oxygenation supports identified in these publications were the following: ECMO, shared mechanical ventilator, fast or low-cost production equipment, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), non-invasive ventilation, and use of anesthesia equipment as a mechanical ventilator. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the importance of a trained clinical team in the application of technologies. The alternatives found for support oxygenation require a more robust clinical evaluation to demonstrate their efficacy and safety for the COVID-19 patient.


Comprehensiveness in the Research on Sustainability.

-/- 2021; 3 (1):


Empirical exploration of remittances and renewable energy consumption in Bangladesh.

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In recent years, a surge of remittances to Bangladesh has enabled rural households to adopt modern renewable energy sources. However, researchers have yet to examine any statistical association between remittances and renewable energy. In this study, we determined the causal relationships between per capita remittance inflows and renewable energy consumption in Bangladesh using annual data for the period 1980?2017. This is the first such study. This determination was made while controlling forchanges in GDP, and employing causality and cointegration testing. We arrived at three key results. First, a unidirectional causality running from the level of remittances per capita to a level of renewable energy consumption was determined. Second, we observed a unique cointegrating relationship between the variables. Third, a short-run bidirectional causality between remittances per capita and renewable energy consumption was clarified. Important policy implications indicate that the government should create incentives for remittance-recipient households to invest remittance funds in modern renewable technologies such as solar home energy systems.


Computational Approach For Real-Time Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Kalman Filtering and Forecasting via Unobservable Spectral Components of Experimental Data.

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In this paper, a methodology for design of Kalman filter, using interval type-2 fuzzy systems, in discrete time domain, via spectral decomposition of experimental data, is proposed. The adopted methodology consists of recursive parametric estimation of local state space linear submodels of interval type-2 fuzzy Kalman filter for tracking and forecasting of the dynamics inherited to experimental data, using an interval type-2 fuzzy version of Observer/Kalman Filter Identification (OKID) algorithm. The partitioning of the experimental data is performed by interval type-2 fuzzy Gustafson?Kessel clustering algorithm. The interval Kalman gains in the consequent proposition of interval type-2 fuzzy Kalman filter are updated according to unobservable components computed by recursive spectral decomposition of experimental data. Results illustrate the efficiency of proposed methodology, as compared to other approach widely cited in the literature, for filtering and tracking the state variables of Lorenz?s chaotic attractor in a noisy environment, and its applicability for adaptive and real-time forecasting the dynamic spread behavior of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in state of Maranho and Brazil.


On the Processing Feasibility, Microstructure Evolution, and Mechanical Properties of Laser Clad Stellite 21 Alloy.

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Laser cladding is widely used for feature repair and manufacturing of large structural components. However, due to processing parameters and thus energy densities variation, defects can form in laser clad materials. There is a need to understand the relationship between energy densities and cladding quality. This study therefore investigates the critical parameters in producing structural Stellite 21 (Co-Cr-MoNiC) alloy by laser cladding. Compared with conventional manufacturing, laser clad materials possess ultrafine ?-Co dendrites and ?-CoCr interdendritic eutectics due to the fast cooling rate. In addition, adjustment of the energy densities can help control defects and improve corrosion resistance. The wear resistance, microhardness, and phase analysis in the laser clad materials are also discussed in this work.


The Effects of Time Framing on Compliance to Hypothetical Social-Distancing Policies Related to COVID-19.

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The current study analyzed the effects of two frames for durations of time?calendar unit and calendar date?on measures of compliance to hypothetical social-distancing policies related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants reported the extent to which they would comply with hypothetical social-distancing policies lasting different durations of time. Durations of time were framed as calendar units (e.g., days, weeks, months, years) and calendar dates (i.e., specific dates the policies would extent to). Levels of compliance across durations of time were used to calculate the area under the curve (AuC) for each condition. Social-distancing policies framed in calendar dates yielded significantly greater AuC values compared to social-distancing policies framed in calendar units. Participants? self-reported political affiliation yielded a significant main effect: Conservative participants? AuC values were significantly lower than liberal participants? AuC values. The framing of the duration of time was a significant variable in controlling rates of compliance to hypothetical social-distancing policies.


Does an agent?s touch always matter? Study on virtual Midas touch, masculinity, social status, and compliance in Polish men.

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Traditional gender roles that define what is feminine and masculine also imply that men have higher social status than women. These stereotypes still influence how people interact with each other and with computers. Touch behaviour, essential in social interactions, is an interesting example of such social behaviours. The Midas touch effect describes a situation when a brief touch is used to influence one?s behaviour. Our study aimed to analyse the influence of virtual touch on compliance in men in a decision-making game called Ultimatum. In a series of three studies, we investigated whether social cues such as gender, stereotypical masculine/feminine appearance, and high/low social status modify compliance to offers from embodied agents. We built an immersive version of a repeated Ultimatum game in which a proposer offers how to split ten coins, and a responder accepts or rejects the offer. In study 1, men and women played with a female and a male agent. In study 2 and 3, men played with four agents each, differing in gender and levels of stereotypically seen masculinity and social status. There was no significant touch effect. Compliance was secured mostly by the value of the offer: the more generous the offer, the higher the compliance rate. We also found evidence for the perceived masculinity and social status influence. We also describe relationships between agents? characteristics and the perception of their touch. The results are discussed in the context of social characteristics that are important in agent design and the effectiveness of social influence techniques in virtual reality.Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (10.1007/s12193-020-00351-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Metallization of Porous Polyethylene Using a Wire-Arc Spray Process for Heat Transfer Applications.

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Metallization of polyethylene (PE) using thermal spray techniques has proved difficult due to its low melting point and softness. In this study, metallic coatings were applied on porous polyethylene substrates using a twin wire-arc spray process. Commercially available polyethylene sheets, 3mm in thickness, were used as substrates. Copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), and zinc (Zn) were successfully deposited on the porous polymer, without prior surface preparation, to form coatings with thickness of about 400m. Coating surface morphology and cross-sections were examined using a scanning electron microscope. Individual metal splats on the porous and non-porous substrates were observed to study the differences in the bonding mechanisms. The adhesion strength and electrical resistivity of the coatings on porous PE were evaluated. It was found that the bond strength of all three metallic coatings was found to be higher than the ultimate fracture strength of the porous. These results suggest that porosity in the polymer helps to overcome the challenges of metallizing polyethylene and provides a significant reduction in the weight of the polymer. Therefore, all these properties aided in fabricating an extremely lightweight, composite material with potential use in thermal management applications.


Cultural Survival in B. F. Skinner: Possibilities for Conceptual Refinement.

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The concept of cultural survival is fundamental when describing the selection processes involved in cultural evolution. However, its application by Skinner was inconsistent. As a result, distinct and sometimes contradictory interpretations regarding what it means for a culture to survive occasionally emerge in the behavior-analytic literature. In this article, we aim to identify the stimuli that prompted Skinner to emit the verbal response ?cultural survival.? Our analysis suggests two problems: (a) the concept of cultural survival is used by Skinner to identify both the effects of cultural practices on the physical survival ofmembersof the culture and their effects on the survival of specific sets of social reinforcement contingencies via operant reinforcement, and (b) the concept is applied to two different phenomena?namely, first, the relation between the complete range of social reinforcement contingencies maintained by the human species and the physical survival of humankind, and, second, the relation between specific sets of these contingencies and the physical survival of particular groups. Finally, we argue for the importance of the precise identification of the groups and social contingencies that compose any ?culture? submitted to a behavioral analysis.Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42822-020-00044-w.


A Review of Exploration, Development, and Production Cost Offshore Newfoundland.

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Operators have spent $84 billion Canadian dollars in exploration, development, and production offshore Newfoundland, Canada, between 1966 and 2019, and have produced about 2 billion barrels of an estimated 3.3 billion barrels recoverable oil. Four major projects have been developed?Hibernia, Terra Nova, White Rose/North Amethyst, and Hebron?using two development concepts, gravity-base structures and floating production storage and offloading vessels. The region is characterized by severe storm and sea conditions, including the presence of icebergs, which challenge all aspects of exploration and development. From 1998 to 2019, exploration and delineation drilling cost averaged $90.9 million per well and $26,494 per meter drilled. Development wells drilled from mobile offshore drilling units over the same period averaged $91.1 million per producer well and $68.8 million per injector well. Regional development cost was $32.5/bbl since the start of production and is expected to fall to $22/bbl when recoverable volumes circa 2020 have been extracted. Average regional production cost from 2006 to 2019 is estimated at $23.4/bbl and ranges from $16.8/bbl at Hibernia to about $35/bbl at Terra Nova and White Rose. This is the first detailed evaluation of exploration, development, and production cost offshore Newfoundland.


Agency theory utility and social entrepreneurship: issues of identity and role conflict.

-/- ; (): 1-20

Social entrepreneurs are often at the forefront of remedying complex societal issues by linking the entrepreneurial mindset with approaches to solving these systemic societal issues. We build upon existing notions regarding the field of social entrepreneurship and existing forms of social entrepreneurship while deepening the understanding of the different roles that social entrepreneurs must embody on a daily basis. Agency theory is used by identifying principal and agent factors underlying social entrepreneurship in terms of role stressors and role conflict. We outline varying types of social entrepreneurs and discuss role duality, an area with room for much exploration. We also identify and discuss problems for principals and agents within these types of social entrepreneurship. Thus we contribute to the literature (1) by extending on the types of social entrepreneurs, (2) by identifying the threats that social entrepreneurs face through an agency lens; namely the dual role that social entrepreneurs must embark upon, and (3) by describing the boundary conditions of the different social entrepreneur types, we link the potential challenges of social entrepreneurship with a deeper look into the growing domain that is social entrepreneurship.


COVID-19: Journey so far and Deep Insight Using Crowdsourced Data in India.

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The aim of this study is to assemble the data and reflect the epidemiological statistics required as well as apply mathematical prototypical approach of the new outbreak that cover all perspectives of the facts and figures as of August 08, 2020, and thereby suggest the direction of the forthcoming epidemic situation in India for all policy makers. The outburst of the new fatal strain of coronavirus from an animal-to-human fall over in China has infected at least 204 countries as well as territories throughout the world. As of April 03, 2020, almost 972,303 confirmed cases and 50,321 deaths have been reported across the world due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that attained a huge elevation to 19.3??106 confirmed cases on August 08, 2020, of which India contributes a major part of 2.09??106 confirmed cases. It is the first neoliberal virus that easily encompasses its danger chiefly to easily susceptible including the malnutrition, the ill, and old people. As the world struggles with pandemic, India with its second largest population of more than 1.3 billion people in the world is likely to have many more cases than the numbers currently being reported. This has put numerous thousand individuals under observation in the country due to clinical symptoms, recent travel to China, Italy, Iran, and concordant entries in the relevant tailing surveys. The novelty of this approach is to rely on the exclusive source of official data, for social media and daily tracking of news reports in India that collected and curated the pertinent information.


Electroplating Kinetic of Nanostructured Selenium Films from Citrate Bath.

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In this work; Cyclic-Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the electrodeposition kinetic of selenium films in potentiostatic mode from aqueous solution containing selenium dioxide and sodium citrate at pH?=?4.2. Semiconducting proprieties of obtained deposits were investigated by Mott-Schottky measurements whereas the optical ones were performed by UV?Visible spectrophotometry. The morphological characterization was carried out using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results showed that the electrodeposition process of selenium films in citrate bath occurred under diffusional regime as rate-limiting step. Deposition rate of selenium layers on platinum substrate is much superior than in the case of ITO substrate and up to a value of 0.65?g/cm2s. The HSeO3?/Se system becomes more rapid with the increase of the bath temperature. Obtained deposits are photoactive films that belong to p-type semiconductors with number of charge carriers in order of 1021/cm3 and energy band gap about 1.7eV. The grains of electroplated films have spherical forms, nanometric sizes and strong adhesion on the substratesurface.


Multiple drugs: Off-label use in coronavirus disease 2019 and increase in the viral replication of SARS-CoV-2: 5 case reports.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 549


Pembrolizumab: COVID-19 infection: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 637


Dapsone/methotrexate: Neutropenia and lack of efficacy: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 276


Tick-borne-encephalitis-vaccine: Vaccination failure: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 742


Adalimumab: Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculous pericardial tamponade: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 23


Sugammadex: Anaphylaxis: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 711


Heparin/low molecular weight heparins: Thrombocytopenia: 7 case reports.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 367


Apixaban/enoxaparin sodium: Lack of efficacy: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 121


Remdesivir: Bowel Perforation: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 681


Heparin: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 362


Durvalumab/everolimus: Lung toxicity and pulmonary sarcoidosis: 2 case reports.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 310


Prednisone: Lack of efficacy in chronic graft versus host disease: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 664


Lactulose/rifaximin: Lack of drug effect: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 450


Managing allergic reactions to Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 5


Azithromycin/hydroxychloroquine/lopinavir/ritonavir: Brugada-like ECG pattern following off-label use: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 158


Multiple drugs: SARS-CoV-2 infection and lymphopenia: 3 case reports.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 553


Hydroxychloroquine: Haemolysis following off-label use: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 376


Other adverse reaction research.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 12


Rituximab: COVID-19: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 686


Ceftriaxone/levofloxacin/lopinavir/ritonavir: Thrombocytopenia following off-label use: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 221


Carboplatin/paclitaxel: COVID-19 induced neutropenic enterocolitis : case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 213


Anakinra/tocilizumab: Primary biliary cholangitis: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 65


IoT enabled depthwise separable convolution neural network with deep support vector machine for COVID-19 diagnosis and classification.

-/- ; (): 1-14

At present times, the drastic advancements in the 5G cellular and internet of things (IoT) technologies find useful in different applications of the healthcare sector. At the same time, COVID-19 is commonly spread from animals to persons, but today it is transmitting among persons by adapting the structure. It is a severe virus and inappropriately resulted in a global pandemic. Radiologists utilize X-ray or computed tomography (CT) images to diagnose COVID-19 disease. It is essential to identify and classify the disease through the use of image processing techniques. So, a new intelligent disease diagnosis model is in need to identify the COVID-19. In this view, this paper presents a novel IoT enabled Depthwise separable convolution neural network (DWS-CNN) with Deep support vector machine (DSVM) for COVID-19 diagnosis and classification. The proposed DWS-CNN model aims to detect both binary and multiple classes of COVID-19 by incorporating a set of processes namely data acquisition, Gaussian filtering (GF) based preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification. Initially, patient data will be collected in the data acquisition stage using IoT devices and sent to the cloud server. Besides, the GF technique is applied to remove the existence of noise that exists in the image. Then, the DWS-CNN model is employed for replacing default convolution for automatic feature extraction. Finally, the DSVM model is applied to determine the binary and multiple class labels of COVID-19. The diagnostic outcome of the DWS-CNN model is tested against Chest X-ray (CXR) image dataset and the results are investigated interms of distinct performance measures. The experimental results ensured the superior results of the DWS-CNN model by attaining maximum classification performance with the accuracy of 98.54% and 99.06% on binary and multiclass respectively.


A survey of methods for evaluating mini-publics.

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Public participation has become increasingly necessary to connect a wide range of knowledge and various values to agenda setting, decision-making and policymaking. In this context, deliberative democratic concepts, especially ?mini-publics,? are gaining attention. Generally, mini-publics are conducted with randomly selected lay citizens who provide sufficient information to deliberate on issues and form final recommendations. Evaluations are conducted by practitioner researchers and independent researchers, but the results are not standardized. In this study, a systematic review of existing research regarding practices and outcomes of mini-publics was conducted. To analyze 29 papers, the evaluation methodologies were divided into 4 categories of a matrix between the evaluator and evaluated data. The evaluated cases mainly focused on the following two points: (1) how to maintain deliberation quality, and (2) the feasibility of mini-publics. To create a new path to the political decision-making process through mini-publics, it must be demonstrated that mini-publics can contribute to the decision-making process and good-quality deliberations are of concern to policy-makers and experts. Mini-publics are feasible if they can contribute to the political decision-making process and practitioners can evaluate and understand the advantages of mini-publics for each case. For future research, it is important to combine practical case studies and academic research, because few studies have been evaluated by independent researchers.


Multiple drugs: Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage secondary to COVID-19 infection: 2 case reports.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 518


Quetiapine: Recurrent low-grade fevers: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 676


Azithromycin/hydroxychloroquine: QT prolongation and ventricular extrasystole secondary to off label use: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 157


Tocilizumab: Progression of multiple myeloma following off-label use: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 746


Doxorubicin: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 295


Meropenem/moxifloxacin/umifenovir: QT interval prolongation and off label use: 2 case reports.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 479


Adalimumab/methotrexate/prednisone: Severe COVID-19 infection: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 28


Clarithromycin/hydroxychloroquine/methylprednisolone: Off-label use and multivessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 237


Etoposide/heparin/immune globulin: Transaminitis, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and laboratory test interference: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 327


Mycophenolate/tacrolimus: Worsening of COVID-19 infection: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 584


Acetylcysteine: Lack of efficacy: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 17


Multiple drugs: Venous thromboembolism and lack of efficacy: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 566


Durvalumab: Immune-related pneumonitis: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 309


Azathioprine: SARS-CoV-2 infection: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 148


Etanercept: COVID-19 infection: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 321


Fluconazole/tioconazole: Allergic contact dermatitis following cross reactivity: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 341


Remdesivir use in severe renal impairment: benefits outweigh risks.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 11


Hydroxychloroquine: Cardiac toxicity following off-label use: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 374


Tacrolimus: Delayed clearance of COVID-19 : case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 718


Rocuronium bromide: Hypoxia: 2 case reports.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 691


Mycophenolate mofetil/prednisone/tacrolimus: COVID-19 and lymphopenia: case report.

-/- 2021; 1836 (1): 569


A unified approach for detection of Clickbait videos on YouTube using cognitive evidences.

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Clickbait is one of the form of false content, purposely designed to attract the user?s attention and make them curious to follow the link and read, view, or listen to the attached content. The teaser aim behind this is to exploit the curiosity gap by giving information within the short statement. Still, the given statement is not sufficient enough to satisfy the curiosity without clicking through the linked content and lure the user to get into the respective page via playing with human psychology and degrades the user experience. To counter this problem, we develop a Clickbait Video Detector (CVD) scheme. The scheme leverages to learn three sets of latent features based on User Profiling, Video-Content, and Human Consensus, these are further used to retrieve cognitive evidence for the detection of clickbait videos on YouTube. The first step is to extract audio from the videos, which is further transformed to textual data, and later on, it is utilized for the extraction of video content-based features. Secondly, the comments are analyzed, and features are extracted based on human responses/reactions over the posted content. Lastly, user profile based features are extracted. Finally, all these features are fed into the classifier. The proposed method is tested on the publicly available fake video corpus [FVC], [FVC-2018] dataset, and a self-generated misleading video dataset [MVD]. The achieved result is compared with other state-of-the-art methods and demonstrates superior performance.


Industry Updates.

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Engineering/Technology Talent Development on the College Campus.

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Engineering technology is evolving rapidly in the Information Age, much faster than institutions of learning can upgrade their programs and syllabi. India has developed more engineering programs that dwell on mathematical analysis, theory and an understanding of the science rather than engineering technology programs which focus on application of science to solve real-world problems. Industries rely on innovation which is all about making incremental modifications to existing solutions with the intention of adding value or improving the efficiency. Thus there is a fundamental disconnect in the expectation of industry from graduating students and the focus of engineering programs. In this paper, we will consider the aspect of industry-readiness of graduating engineers, focusing on three areas of engineering, namely, electronics and communication engineering, Electrical Engineering, and computer science. The objective of the paper is to identify the gaps and suggest ways to fill this gap.


Recognition of district-wise groundwater stress zones using the GLDAS-2 catchment land surface model during lean season in the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Water is essential for irrigation, drinking and industrial purposes from global to the regional scale. The groundwater considered a significant water resource specifically in regions where the surface water is not sufficient. Therefore, the research problem is focused on district-wise sustainable groundwater management due to urbanization. The number of impervious surface areas like roofing on built-up areas, concrete and asphalt road surface were increased due to the level of urban development. Thus, these surface areas can inhibit infiltration and surface retention by the impact of urbanization because vegetation/forest areas are decreased. The present research examines the district-wise spatiotemporal groundwater storage (GWS) changes under terrestrial water storage using the global land data assimilation system-2 (GLDAS-2) catchment land surface model (CLSM) from 2000 to 2014 in West Bengal, India. The objective of the research is mainly focused on the delineation of groundwater stress zones (GWSZs) based on ten biophysical and hydrological factors according to the deficiency of groundwater storage using the analytic hierarchy process by the GIS platform. Additionally, the spatiotemporal soil moisture (surface soil moisture, root zone soil moisture, and profile soil moisture) changes for the identification of water stress areas using CLSM were studied. Finally, generated results were validated by the observed groundwater level and groundwater recharge data. The sensitivity analysis has been performed for GWSZs mapping due to the deficit of groundwater storage. Three correlation coefficient methods (Kendall, Pearson and Spearman) are applied for the interrelationship between the most significant parameters for the generation of GWSZ from sensitivity analysis. The results show that the northeastern (max: 1097.35mm) and the southern (max: 993.22mm) parts have high groundwater storage due to higher amount of soil moisture and forest cover compared to other parts of the state. The results also show that the maximum and minimum total annual groundwater recharge shown in Paschim Medinipore [(361,148.51 hectare-meter (ham)] and Howrah (31,510.46 ham) from 2012 to 2013. The generated outcome can create the best sustainable groundwater management practices based upon the human attitude toward risk.Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (10.1007/s11600-020-00509-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


An additive manufacturing fabricated a split Pitot tube transducer for mechanical ventilator analyzers.

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Introduction: Frequent calibration of ventilators and anesthesia machines might reduce the risk of death and of sequelae in patients under mechanical ventilation. However, ventilator analyzers might be difficult to purchase due to high cost or even in trade-restrictive scenarios, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. To alleviate this problem, the aim of this article is to present the design and characterization of a Pitot tube transducer fabricated with additive manufacturing (AM), to be used in ventilator analyzers. Method: A split Pitot tube (SPT) transducer was designed using computer-aided design (CAD) and characterized using finite element method (FEM) simulations. Bernoulli?s equation was used to determine a transducer discharge coefficient. The sensor was fabricated with the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic, with the fused deposition modeling after properly configuring the 3D printer. Results: According to the simulated velocity profile, the transducer does not impose excessive resistance to the flow and the pressure profile revealed that the pressure is constant and stable inside the pressure lines. The characteristic curve of differential pressure (dP) versus flow is quadratic. For the minimal and maximal simulated flows 0.01 to 300L/min, the corresponding dP values are 6.53510?4Pa and 13.178103Pa. Conclusion: The split Pitot tube transducer developed here has appropriate characteristics for measuring air flows from mechanical ventilators, and the delivered pressures can be read by commercial electronic sensors. The AM is viable for fabricating the transducer, and the printing time is considerably low compared to that necessary to order a similar part from a sales representative.


Applying Implementation Drivers to Scale-up Evidence-Based Practices in New York State.

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Mental health authorities in several states, often working with academic partners, have played important roles in disseminating evidence-based practices (EBPs) for adults diagnosed with serious mental illness. This work has been facilitated by intermediary organizations that work directly with providers to implement EBPs. This report uses two case studies to describe how the Center for Practice Innovations (CPI), an intermediary organization, has used the Active Implementation Research Network?s nine implementation drivers to successfully implement EBPs across the large state of New York. One case study focuses on supported employment and the second on integrated treatment for co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. We provide these case studies to illustrate how intermediary organizations can use implementation science to organize and select effective support strategies to disseminate and implement a range of EBPs within a state system.


Spatio-temporal assessment and economic analysis of a grid-connected island province toward a 35% or greater domestic renewable energy portfolio: a case in Bohol, Philippines.

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The year 2020 marks the start of the implementation of the Renewable Portfolio Standards in the Philippines. To raise the country?s renewable energy (RE) share to 35% by 2030 (aspirational target), an annual minimum incremental RE of 1% has been imposed to all mandated participants. This local-level policy implementation has allowed the assessment of RE resource adequacy to be carried out on a smaller geographical scale (i.e., province level). The case for grid-connected island provinces, such as our study area, can be more interesting because of the opportunity to self-sustainable energy production. In this paper, we assess the adequacy of domestic RE resources of Bohol province to reach this target by estimating the technical potential of solar, wind, biomass, and hydropower using spatio-temporal datasets. Then, for every identified potential RE project, we calculate the busbar levelized cost. We also evaluate the province s base RE share to assess the extent to which the technical potential can improve its RE penetration in four distinct domestic and imported energy generation scenarios. With 20 different scenarios of additional RE capacity, we generate RE portfolios for the minimum target RE share (35%), as well as the 50% and maximum. The results revealed that, when the country?s RE penetration continues, Bohol?s hydropower potential is not enough to meet the 35% target. Seasonal renewables are also insufficient for a 50% target. In several scenarios, the province?s energy self-sustainability can be possible at reasonable costs when variable RE technologies are included in the portfolio.


The COVID-19 pandemic: A focusing event to promote community midwifery policies in the United States.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented stress on health care systems across the globe. This stress has altered prenatal, labor, delivery, and postpartum care in the U.S., motivating many pregnant people to seek maternal health care with community midwives in a home or freestanding birth center setting. Although the dominant maternal health care providers across the globe, community midwives work on the margins of the U.S. health care system, in large part due to policy restrictions. This commentary extends previous research to theorize that the COVID-19-related disrupted health care system and the heightened visibility of community midwives may create a ?focusing event,? or policy window, which may enable midwives and their advocates to shift policy.


L?impact psychosocial de la pandmie de COVID-19sur les personnes LGBT au Chili?.

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Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has led many countries around the world, including Chile, to take various measures, including physical and, social isolation. The effects of these measures, necessary to prevent the virus from spreading, must be studied. In particular, quarantines are known to have an impact on quality of life and well-being (for example, associated symptoms such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and other psychosocial consequences). Furthermore, these effects are expected to be more pronounced in previously disadvantaged populations, such as LGBT people. This paper describes the main measures taken by LGBT population during quarantine to avoid COVID-19 and its psychosocial consequences on an individual and social basis. Method: Non-probability sampling was used. An online self-administered survey including 1181 participants was used. These were lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender residents over 18 years old from Chile. Results: Almost eight out of ten participants were in a total quarantine situation. From them, 18.2% were in partial isolation and only 4.6% were not in quarantine. COVID-19 has affected almost all the LGBT participants to a certain extent. COVID-19 has emotionally affected the vast majority of the LGBT participants to a certain extent. In other words, the pandemic has affected their lives. This psychosocial impact of COVID has been greater for people who define themselves as sexual (include queer, asexual, pansexual, demisexual). Discussion: The measures taken to prevent the virus transmission significantly affect LGBT people s life. In particular, these measures affect sexual people. sexual people must manage discrimination and misunderstanding of their identity in many contexts including their family.


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